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四六级阅读理解解题技巧详文

来源:互联网 [2014-11-19]   浏览次数:2757



  第一单元 阅读应试理论

  一、分析文章结构

  一般来说,我们阅读文章的目的是为了获取信息。文章体裁不同,其结构特点就会各异。因此,我们获取信息的最有效方法之一就是去学习和了解文章的结构,以便更加准确、快速地定位我们要找的信息。

  大学英语四级考试中的阅读理解文章的体裁主要有三类:叙述文、说明文和议论文。下面我们四级考试真题来具体说明如何利用文章的结构特点来达到阅读的目的。

  1、叙述文

  叙述文一般以讲述个人生活经历为主,对于经历的陈述通常由一定的时间概念贯穿其中,或顺序或倒序。但是四级考试中一般不出现单纯的叙述文,因为单纯的叙述文比较简单、易懂。所以四级考试中的叙述文大多是夹叙夹议的文章。这类文章的基本结构模式是:

  1) 用一段概括性的话引入要叙述的经历(话题)

  2) 叙述先前的经历(举例1)及其感悟或发现

  3) 叙述接下来的经历(举例2)及其感悟或发现

  4) 做出总结或结论

  2000年12月四级考试阅读理解的第二篇就是这样的结构。我们可以将其结构简化为:

  1) 总括性的话:

  Engineering students are supposed to be example of practicality and rationality, but when it comes to my college education I am an idealist and a fool.

  2) 先前的经历或想法

  In high school I wanted to be ……,but I didn't chose a college with a large engineering department.

  3) 往后的经历

  I chose to study engineering at a small liberal-arts university for a broad education.

  4) 接下来的经历

  I headed off for sure that I was going to have an advantage over others.

  5) 再下来的经历

  Now I am not so sure. …… I have learned the reasons why few engineering students try to reconcile engineering with liberal-arts courses in college.

  6) 结论

  I have realized that the struggle to reconcile the study of engineering and liberal-arts is difficult.

  只要理解了这类文章的结构特点,解答问题就相当简单,因为这类文章后的阅读理解试题大多是和文章的内容先后顺序一致的细节题。

  2、说明文(描述文)

  说明文的一般结构模式和叙述文的结构模式有相通之处即:提出问题(或以一个事例引出问题)---- (专家)发现直接原因----- 分析深层原因-----得出结论或找到出路。

  2000年12月四级考试阅读理解第三篇就是这样的一篇文章。

  1) Priscilla Ouchuida's "energy-efficient" house turned out to be a horrible dream. …… a strange illness. (事例)

  2) Experts finally traced the cause of her illness.(直接原因)

  3) The Ouchidas are victims of indoor air pollution,….(深层原因)

  4) The problem appears it be more troublesome in newly constructed homes rather than old ones. (得出结论)

  知道了类似的文章结构特点,就可以据此来进行考题预测。比如,我们看出了该篇文章属于这种结构类型,就能判断出几个问题中肯定有一个要问原因,还有可能要出现推断题。

  3、议论文

  我们大家最容易辨认出来的议论文模式是主张---反主张模式。在这一模式中,作者首先提出一种普遍认可的观点或某些人认可的主张或观点,然后进行澄清,说明自己的主张或观点,或者说提出反主张或真实情况。1996年1月大学英语四级考试阅读理解第四篇就是这样的结构。

  文章的开始提出某college teacher认为:"High school English teachers are not doing their jobs ." 因为 His students has a bad command of English.

  作者的反观点是:

  1) It is inevitable for one generation to complain the one immediately following it. And it is human nature to look for reasons for our dissatisfaction.

  2) The people who criticize the high school teachers are not aware that their language ability has developed through the years.

  最后的结论是:The concern about the decline and fall of the English language is a generation, and is not new and peculiar to today's young people.

  议论文的这种结构特点决定了它的主要题型是作者观点态度题,文章主旨题以及推理判断题。只要发现了这种结构特点,解答问题的主要任务就变成了到段落内找答案,基本上不存在任何困难。

通过研究以上的文章结构特点,我们不难发现,在四级考试阅读理解中无论任何体裁的文章都遵循着这样一个共同的模式:提出话题(观点或事例)---- 用事例分析原因(或批驳观点)------得出结论。对文章结构特点的把握有助于读者更加自觉地关注文章的开始和结尾,分清观点和事例,从而在四级考试的阅读理解中准确定位,快速答题。
 二、把握行文脉络

  境界较高的阅读是把注意力集中在作者的思想上,而不是在个别零碎“单词”上。比如读到but的时候,应当能“预见”到下一句意思与上一句相反。能够捉住作者行文的思路,这样就能把握全文的脉络。

  首先要根据文中的结构词把握文章的脉络。文章按结构可分为顺承式文章和转折式文章。

  顺承式结构指的是前后两个部分之间内容相近,相辅相成,通常由下列连接词连接:similarly,first,second,because,thus等等。

  转折式结构一般指两个部分之间内容相反,相互对立。通常由下列转折词连接:however,yet,but,while,nevertheless等等。

  区分文章是属于转折式还是顺承式,主要看文中是否有转折词。没有转折词则为顺承式结构,有转折词则为转折式结构。只要看到转折词,就可断定前后两部分的内容是相反的。

  三、 巧妙绕开生词

  我们这里所说的巧妙绕开生词的方法和上面分析文章结构特点的思路是统一的,也就是说,只要我们从总体上把握了文章,不用认识每一个单词也能照样理解整篇文章。

  1、英语文章中不是所有的词的功能都是同等的,有些词担负着传达主要信息的功能,而有些词主要起语法作用或者它所传达的信息和下文的其他信息没有联系。这类词有:表示人名,地名,机构名等专有名词。遇到这些词,只要我们能辨认出它是专有名词,就能理解文章而不必知道它的意思。比如在下面的句子中:"In fact", says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, "there's even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep." 两个引号之间的部分就不必去管它。类似的还有: " We have to totally change our attitude toward napping," says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research.

  2、我们不用弄清上面某些部分的原因是,它们的后面往往有一个同位语来解释说明它们的意思。这就引起了我们不用弄懂所有单词意思的第二个理由。也就是说如果我们对文章中的某一个单词不熟悉,我们还可以根据统一篇文章中的其他信息来帮助判断。这类信息有:同位语、下定义、解释、举例、同义词、反义词、上下词以及标点符号(如破折号、冒号都表示解释和说明)等。

  四、 抓住句子主干

  我们要实现快速准确理解文章除了要抓住关键句子外,还要抓住句子当中的关键成分。主要是句子的主干,如主语、谓语和宾语,因为它们是传达信息的主要载体,其他成分,不论它有多么长,多么复杂它都是辅助成分。比如在下面的句子中:Another element in the emergence of prodigies(神童),I found , is a society that values excellence in a certain field and is able nurture talent. 只要我们抓住了Element is society.就可以得知社会是神童出现的一个因素。

  要说明的核心问题是,我们阅读英语文章时,一定要有一个全局观念,从宏观上来把握文章,做到了这一点,我们面对各类文章的各类题型都能够从容应对。

  五、解题顺序

  作阅读理解题的解题顺序通常有这样几种:

  ——三部曲式:先读文章→再做题目→拿不准的再回头读文章

  此为传统方法,命中率高,速度慢,效率自然就低。

  ——抓重点式:先读题目,划出考点关键词;再带着问题读文章,根据考点关键词进行定位,查找解题信息。

  ——感觉式:不读文章只做题目。实际上是“狗急跳墙”的做法。可是若熟练掌握解的特征,其命中率不一定非常低,我们做过试验,学生掌握解的特征后,令其只做题目不看文章,结合生活常识和其他知识进行判断,平均命中率在40%左右,远高于25%的理论值。有的天才学生甚至达到60%左右的命中率。

  我们认为,这三种方法中第二种比较好,可以在正确率和效率之间达到最佳平衡。事实上,根据考点关键词进行定位这种方法需稍加训练,高中以上学生用该方法做25篇左右阅读理解就比较熟练了。

  第二单元 命题考点及题型

  分析研究英语四级考试阅读理解历届考题,可以发现命题者命制的考点是有一定规律的,且考点规律常与某种题型(主旨题、细节题、逻辑题、观点态度题、词义题)相对应。如果考生掌握了这些规律,就能在第一遍快速阅读短文时,敏锐地捕捉到考点并能预测可能会出的题型。考生此时应用笔在这些可能会出题的考点轻轻划上记号,等看完短文开始做题时,针对题干的提问,迅速找到做记号的考点,再仔细分析、答题。这样,考生就能节省不少时间,从而避免开始做题时又要通阅全文盲目找考点。下面,我们将这些考点规律及对应题型归纳如下:

  1、列举处常考

  列举处指的是First,…,second, …,Third, …等逐步列出,并列指的是A、B and C。其共同特点是列出3条或3条以上的条目。后要求考生从列举出的内容中,选出符合题干要求的答案项。该考点常出题型是"细节事实题"。 主要有两种:

  ① which题型

  该题型要求从并列的三项中选一项作为答案,其他选项与题目无关。

  ② except题型

  该题型要求考生通过核对文章内,排除满足文章内容的三个选项,留下不符合文章的作为答案。也称为“三缺一”题型。

  例1. At third big difference between the drama detective and the real one is the unpleasant pressures: firstly, as members of a police force they always have to be have absolutely in accordance with the law. Secondly, as expensive public servants they have to get results. They can hardly do both. Most of the time some of them have to break the rules in small ways.

  Q: What's the policeman's biggest headache?

  (A) He has to get the most desirable results without breaking the law in any way.

  (B) He has to justify his arrests while unable to provide sufficient evidence in most cases.

  (C) He can hardly find enough time to learn criminal law while burdened with numerous criminal cases.

  (D) He has to provide the best possible public service at the least possible expense.

  (分析:选A。属事实细节题。依据文章,与电影中的警察很不相同的是,现实中警察既要绝对遵守法(firstly,…),又要及时破案(secondly,…),这令他们很难两头兼顾,有时只有犯规。很明显,B、C、D三项都与文章内容不符。)

  在做此类细节事实题时,只要把细节考点(firstly,…secondly…)找到,对照选项内容,跟细节事实不一致的就不是选项。考生只需细心一点都能辨清细节事实,选对答案。

  例2.I believe we have a three-part mission for the present.First, we must continue to press for improvements in the quality of life that people can make for themselves . Second,we mast investigate and understand the link between environment and health. Third,we must be able to communicate technical information in a form that citizens can understand. If we can accomplish these three goals in this decade,maybe we can finally stop environmental degradation, and not merely hold it back. We will then be able to spend pollution dollars truly on prevention rather than on barrages.

  Q: which of the following is true according to the last paragraph?

  (A)Efforts should be exerted on pollution prevention instead of on remedial measures.

  (B)More money should be spent in order to stop pollution.

  (C)Ordinary citizens have no access to technical information on pollution.

  (D) Environmental degradation will be stopped by the end of this decade.

  (分析:选A。属事实细节题。专生只要看懂了文章内容三个方面,很容易排除掉B、C、D三项。)

  2、举例子打比喻的地方常考

  为了使自己的观点更有说服力、更加明确,作者经常用具体的例子打比方,句中常由as, such as, for example, for instance等引导的短语或句子作为举例句,这些例句或比喻成为命题者提问的焦点。考生需注意的是例子或比喻一般是和文章或段落中心紧密相关的,常以"细节事实性"题型和"推断性"题型出现,但偏倾于"推断性"题型。

  例1. The opinion seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But drives can be programmed into the computer's brain just as nature programmed them into our human brains as a part of the equipment for survival.

  Q:Today, computers are still inferior to man in terms of ______ .

  (A) decision making (B)drives and feelings

  (C)growth of reasoning (D)information absorption

  (分析:选B项。这属辩认细节事实题,依据文章我们知道计算机缺少人类所具有的动机和情感:computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures,至于动机可以被编入计算机程序,那是今后的事,就目前而言计算机在动机和情感方面不如人类。选项B符合题意。考生只要注意到for one thing 后面一句话,即可选出。)
例2.…. However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media, particularly by television. And yet, we have a vivid acquainting with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as reader, listeners, and viewers. Even so, true understanding of the journalistic interview, especially television interviews, requires thoughtful analyses and even study, as this book indicates.

  Q: The passage is most like a part of 。

  (A)a news article (B) a journalistic interview

  (C) a research report (D) a preface

  (分析:选D项。这属判断、推理题。考生在了解全文梗概之后,要正确地对文章的内容作出判断,考生关键要看懂文章最后一句话:"…as this book indicates。"由此便推断正确的答案是D项。)

  例3 ….In spite of the case against nuclear energy outlined above, nuclear energy programs are expanding. Such an expansion assumes a continual growth in industrial production and consumer demands. However, it is doubtful whether this growth will or can continue.…

  Q:Which of the following statements does the writer support?

  (A) The demand for commercial products will not necessarily keep increasing.

  (B) Nuclear energy is something we cannot do without.

  (C) Uranium is a good source of energy for economic and ecological reasons.

  (D) Greater safety provisions can bring about the expansion of nuclear every programmes.

  (分析:选A项,属推理题,依据文中"such an expansion assumes…. However,…便可推断出A项正确。)

  3、引用人物论断处常考

  作者为了正确表达出自己观点或使论点更有依据,常常引用某名人的论断或重要发现等。命题者常在此作文章。多以"推理性"题为主,有时也出"细节事实性"题型。

  例1."There is a senseless notion that children grew up and leave home when they're 18, and the truth is far from that,"says sociologist Larry Bumpers of the University of Wisconsin….

  Q: There was apparently a trend in the USA ________ .

  (A) for young adults to leave their parents and live independently.

  (B) For middle class young adults to stay with their parents.

  (C) For married young adults to move back home after a lengthy absence.

  (D) For going adults to get jobs nearby in order to live with their parents.

  (分析:选A项。属推理题。作者引用的这句话意思是:"孩子长到18岁时应离开父母去独立生活的概念是没有道理的,而事实情况也并非如此。"而题干问:过去在美国显然有一种什么趋势。考生通过细心推断引文,便能选中A项:年轻的成年人应该离开父母而去独立生活。)

  例2. …"people cheat on their sleep, and they don't even realize they're doing it,"says Dr. David."They think they're okay because they can get by on 6.5 howler, when they really need 7.5 , eight or even more to feel ideally rigorous."(见《分册》P12页例3)

  Q: According to Dr. David, Americans ________ .

  (A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressure of life.

  (B) Often neglect the consequences of sleep deficit.

  (C) Do not know how to relax themselves properly.

  (D) Can get by on 6.5 hoarse of sleep.

  (分析:选B项。属于归纳事实细节题。Dr. David所说的话,描述的是一种事实现象,即美国人睡眠不足而误认为这不是什么大的事,还自我感觉良好。从事实中我们可以看出美国人经常忽视睡眠不足的后果,即B项的内容。)

  例3. By the millions they are coming-no longer the tired, the poor, the wretched masses longing for a better living. These are the wealthy. "We don't have a budget,"says a biologist from Brazil. As she walks with two companions through New York lity's South Street, "We juse use our credit cards."

  Q:From what the Brazilian biologist says, we know that tourist

  like her ________ .

  (A) are reluctant to carry cash with them.

  (B) Simply don't care how much they spend.

  (C) Are not good at planning their expenditure.

  (D) Often spend more money that they can afford.

  (分析:选B项。属判断推理题。文章讲成千上万涌进美国的富有者与那个巴西生物学家一样,他们在购物时只管刷卡("just use our credit cards.")而根本不做预算("don't have a hudget"),可推断出他们这类人是"根本不管花多少钱的。"即B项内容。)4、转折处与强对比处常考

  一般而言,转折后的内容常常是语义的重点,命题者常对转折处的内容进行提问。转折一般通过however, but, yet, in fact等词或短语来引导。强对比常由unlike, until, not so much…as等词或短语引导。命题者常对用来对比的双方属性进行考查。 比如文章中说甲具有X属性,但乙与甲不同,问乙有何属性?答曰:非X属性。

  此类考点常出现在逻辑推理型题中,少数出现于其它题型中。

  例1. Some observers say the fault is with the young people…. But that's a condemnation of the students as a whole…. Others blame the state of the world… But disappointed graduates are learning that it can no longer absorb an army of trained twenty-two-year-olds, either.

  Q:According to the passage the problems of college education partly arise from the fact that _______ .

  (A) society cannot provide enough jobs for properly trained college graduates.

  (B) High school graduates do not fit the pattern of college education.

  (C) Too many students have to earn their own living.

  (D) College administrators encourage students to drop out.

  (分析:选A项。考生阅读文章时,应注意到文中有两个"but"的转折,特别是段末一转折句意即:但失望的毕业生了解到社会再也不能吸收大量的23岁的训练有素的大学生。这一转折后的内容正好是解答题干问题的依据,我们从这句话可以推断出大学考试之所以出了问题部分源于一个事实,即A项:社会不能为训练有素的大学生提供足够工作。此属逻辑推理题。)

  例2 … Unlike other lawbreakers, who must leave the country, commits suicide, or go to jail, computer criminals sometimes escape punishment, demanding….

  Q: It can be conduced from the passage that ________ .

  (分析:这道题属逻辑推理题,命题者利用unlike进行强烈对比,要求考生推断出正确结论。)

  例3 Beauty has always been regard as something praiseworthy. Almost everyone thinks attractive more respectable occupations. Personal consultants give them better advice for finding jobs. Even judges are softer on attentive defendants(被告)。But in the executive circle, beauty can become a liability.

  Q:The author writes this passage to _______ .

  (A) discuss the negative aspects of being attractive.

  (B) Give advice to job-seekers who are attractive.

  (C) Demand equal rights for women.

  (D) Emphasize the importance of appearance.

  (分析:选A项。属主旨大意类题型。前面都是讲美给人带来的种种好处,用but突然进行转折,考生即可推测出下面要讲美给人带来的不利方面了。)

  例4. The sensation of sound involves a verity of factors in addition to its peak level. …In regular programming the intensity of sound varies over a large rage. However, sound levels in commercials tend to stay at or near peak level.

  Q: Commercials create the sensate at the highest sound level.

  (A)TV stations always operate at the highest sound level.

  (B)Their sound levels are kept around peak level.

  (C)Their sound levels are kept in the middle frequency ranges.

  (D)Unlike regular programs their intensity of sound varies over a wide range.

  (分析:选B项,该题属阐述说明主旨大意的事实细节题。用however作转折,指出商业节目的音量是保持或接近峰值(peak levels)。命题者给出的B答案中,只是对however后原句进行了词语和句型的转换。)

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