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英语语法讲义

主目录   

名词

冠词和数词

代词

形容词和副词

动词

动名词

动词不定式

特殊词精讲

分词

独立主格

动词的时态

动词的语态

句子的种类

倒装

主谓一致

虚拟语气

名词性从句

定语从句

状语从句

连词

情态动词

各章练习答案

 

各章目录

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名词

 名词复数的规则变化

 其它名词复数的规则变化

 名词复数的不规则变化

 不可数名词量的表示

 定语名词的复数

 不同国家的人的单复数

 名词的格

  名词练习

  附:介词练习

 

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冠词和数词

 不定冠词的用法

 定冠词的用法

 零冠词的用法

 冠词与形容词+名词结构

 冠词位置

 数词

  冠词练习

  数词练习

  附:限定词练习

 

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代词

 人称代词的用法

 人称代词之主、宾格的替换

 代词的指代问题

 并列人称代词的排列顺序

 物主代词

 双重所有格

 反身代词

 相互代词

 指示代词

 疑问代词

 关系代词

 every,no,all,both,...

 none,few,some,any,...

 代词比较辩异one,that和it

 one/another/the other

 "the"的妙用

 anyone/any one;...

 both,either,neither,...

 many, much

 few,little,a few,...

  代词练习

 

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形容词和副词

 形容词及其用法

 以-ly结尾的形容词

 用形容词表示类别和整体

 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

 副词及其基本用法

 兼有两种形式的副词

 形容词与副词的比较级

 as+形容词或副词原级+as

 比较级形容词或副词+than

 可修饰比较级的词

 many, old和far

 the+最高级+比较范围

 和more有关的词组

  形容词和副词练习

 

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动词

 系动词

 助动词

 助动词be的用法

 助动词have的用法

 助动词do 的用法

 助动词shall和will的用法

 助动词should,would的用法

 短语动词

 非谓语动词

  助动词练习

 

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动名词

 动名词作主语、宾语和表语

 worth 的用法

  动名词、不定式、分词练习

 

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动词不定式

 不定式作宾语

 不定式作补语

 不定式作主语

 It's for sb/It's of sb

 不定式作表语

 不定式作定语

 不定式作状语

 用作介词的to

 省to 的动词不定式

 动词不定式的否定式

 不定式特殊句型too…to…

 不定式特殊句型so as to

 不定式特殊句型Why not

 不定式的时态和语态

 动名词与不定式

 

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特殊词精讲

 stop doing/to do

 forget doing/to do

 remember doing/to do

 regret doing/to do

 cease doing/to do

 try doing/to do

 go on doing/to do

 be afraid doing/to do

 be interested doing/...

 mean doing/to do

 begin(start) doing/to do

 感官动词 + doing/to do

 

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分词

 分词作定语

 分词作状语

 连词+分词(短语)

 分词作补语

 分词作表语

 分词作插入语

 分词的时态

 分词的语态

 

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独立主格

 独立主格

 with的复合结构

 

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动词的时态

 一般现在时的用法

 一般过去时的用法

 used to/be used to

 一般将来时

 be going to/will

 be to和be going to

 一般现在时表将来

 用现在进行时表示将来

 现在完成时

 比较一般过去时与现在完成时

 用于现在完成时的句型

 比较since和for

 since的四种用法

 延续动词与瞬间动词

 过去完成时

 用一般过去时代替过去完成时

 将来完成时

 现在进行时

 不用进行时的动词

 过去进行时

 将来进行时

 一般现在时代替一般将来时

 一般现在时代替一般过去时

 一般现在时代替现在完成时

 一般现在时代替现在进行时

 现在进行时代替一般将来时

 时态一致

 时态与时间状语

  时态、语态练习

 

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动词的语态

 let 的用法

 短语动词的被动语态

 表示"据说"或"相信"的词组

 不用被动语态的情况

 主动形式表示被动意义

 被动形式表示主动意义

 need/want/require/worth

 

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句子的种类

 句子的种类

  祈使句结构

 感叹句结构

 强调句结构

 用助动词进行强调

 反意疑问句

  反意疑问句练习

 

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倒装

 倒装句之全部倒装

 倒装句之部分倒装

 以否定词开头作部分倒装

 so,either,nor作部分倒装

 only在句首要倒装的情况

 as,though引导的倒装句

 其他部分倒装

  倒装练习

 

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主谓一致

 并列结构作主语谓语用复数

 主谓一致中的靠近原则

 谓语动词与前面的主语一致

 谓语需用单数

 指代意义决定谓语的单复数

 与后接名词或代词保持一致

  主谓一致练习

 

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虚拟语气

 真实条件句

 非真实条件句

 混合条件句

 虚拟条件句的倒装

 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

 wish的用法

 比较if only与only if

 It is (high) time that

 need"不必做"和"本不必做"

  虚拟语气练习

 

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名词性从句

 引导名词性从句的连接词

 名词性that-从句

 名词性wh-从句

 if,whether引导的名词从句

 否定转移

 

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定语从句

 关系代词引导的定语从句

 关系副词引导的定语从句

 判断关系代词与关系副词

 限制性和非限制性定语从句

 介词+关系词

 as,which非限定性定语从句

 先行词和关系词二合一

 what/whatever/that...

 关系代词that的用法

 

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状语从句

 地点状语从句

 方式状语从句

 原因状语从句

 目的状语从句

 结果状语从句

 条件状语从句

 让步状语从句

 比较while, when, as

 比较until和till

 表示"一…就…"的结构

 

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连词

 并列连词与并列结构

 比较and和or

 表示选择的并列结构

 表示转折或对比

 表示原因关系

 比较so和 such

  连词和从句练习

 

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情态动词

 情态动词的语法特征

 比较can 和be able to

 比较may和might

 比较have to和must

 must表示推测

 表示推测的用法

 情态动词+have+过去分词

 should和ought to

 had better表示"最好"

 would rather表示"宁愿"

 will和would

 情态动词的回答方式

 带to的情态动词

 比较need和dare

 

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各章练习答案

  名词练习答案

  介词练习答案

  冠词练习答案

  数词练习答案

  限定词练习答案

  代词练习答案

  形容词、副词练习答案

  助动词练习答案

  动名词、不定式、分词练习答案

  时态、语态练习答案

  反意疑问句练习答案

  倒装练习答案

  主谓一致练习答案

  虚拟语气练习答案

  连词和从句练习答案

 

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1. 名词

   名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词,专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:

   1)个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。

   2)集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。

   3)物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。

   4)抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。

个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词,物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词。归纳一下,名词的分类可以下图表示:

 

名词

专有名词

不可数名词

 

普通名词

物质名词

 

抽象名词

 

集体名词

可数名词

个体名词

 

 

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1.1 名词复数的规则变化

情况

构成方法

读音

例词

一般情况

-s

清辅音后读/s/

map-maps

浊辅音和元音后读 /z/

bag-bags /car-cars

s, sh, ch, x等结尾

-es

/iz/

bus-buses/ watch-watches

ce, se, ze,等结尾

-s

/iz/

license-licenses

以辅音字母+y结尾

y 为i再加es

/z/

baby---babies

 

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1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化

1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。例如: 

       two Marys                the Henrys

     monkey---monkeys            holiday---holidays  

2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:

    a. 加s,如: photo---photos       piano---pianos

           radio---radios        zoo---zoos;

    b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes       tomato--tomatoes

    c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如zero---zeros / zeroes。 

3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:

    a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs        roof---roofs

           safe---safes          gulf---gulfs;

    b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves  

      knife---knives leaf---leaves       wolf---wolves

      wife---wives  life---lives         thief---thieves;

c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。

 

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1.3 名词复数的不规则变化

1) child---children      foot---feet      tooth---teeth

mouse---mice     man---men      woman---women 

注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如an Englishman,two Englishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。

2) 单复同形,如deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。

3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如:

people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。

4) 以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:

a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。

b. news 为不可数名词。

c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。

   The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。

d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:

"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。

5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes等,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。

6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼。 

 

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1.4 不可数名词量的表示

1)物质名词

a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。

比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)

These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)

b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如:

This factory produces steel. (不可数)

We need various steels. (可数)

c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如:

Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。

Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。

2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如:

four freedoms 四大自由     the four modernizations四个现代化

物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。

 

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5. 定语名词的复数

名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。

1)       用复数作定语。例如:

sports meeting 运动会    students reading-room 学生阅览室

        talks table 谈判桌        the foreign languages department 外语系

2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:

    men workers  women teachers  gentlemen officials

3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。例如:

       goods train (货车)         arms produce 武器生产

     customs papers 海关文件      clothes brush  衣刷

 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:

two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋  a ten-mile walk 十英里路

two-hundred trees 两百棵树  a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

 

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1.6 不同国籍人的单复数

国籍

总称(谓语用复数)

单数

复数

中国人

the Chinese

a Chinese 

two Chinese

瑞士人

the Swiss

a Swiss

two Swiss

澳大利亚人

the Australians        

an Australian

two Australians

俄国人

the Russians

a Russian

two Russians

意大利人

the Italians

an Italian

two Italians

希腊人

the Greek

a Greek

two Greeks

法国人

the French

a Frenchman

two Frenchmen

日本人

the Japanese

a Japanese

two Japanese

美国人

the Americans

an American

two Americans

印度人

the Indians

an Indian

two Indians

加拿大人

the Canadians

a Canadian

two Canadians

德国人

the Germans

a Germans

two Germans

英国人

the English

an Englishman

two Englishmen

瑞典人

the Swedish

a Swede

two Swedes

                        

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1.7 名词的格

  英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:

1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。

2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。

3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。

4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。

5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如:

John's and Mary's rooms(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)

6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence

 

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1.8 练习

1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.   

a.   little wage    b. few wage    c. wage    d. wages

2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.

a.       an ash   b. the ash    c. ash    d. ashes

3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.

a.       many preparations    b. much preparation    c. preparations    d. preparation

4.Painting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.

a.       oil    b. an oil    c. oils    d. the oil

5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.

a.       much    b. lots of    c. a great deal of    d. many

6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.

a.  of great expense      b. at a great expense  c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense

7.The room was small and contained far too ______.

a.much new furniture    c. much new furnitures

b.many new furniture    d. many new furnitures

8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.

a. rooms number    b. room number   c. room’s numbers    d. room numbers

9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.

  a great many…many       c. much…a great deal

  b. a great deal of…much    d. many…a great many

10.She didn’t know _____ he had been given.

a.       how many information     c. how many informations

b.      the number of information  d. how much information

11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.

a.       comrade-in-arms            c. comrades-in-arm

b.      comrades-in-arms            d. comrade-in-arm

12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.

a.       women doctors               c. woman doctors

b.      women doctor                d. woman doctor

13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.

a.       growns-ups                     c. growns-up

b.      grown-up                       d. grown-ups

14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.

a.        stander-by                 c. standers-by

b.        stander-bys                d. standers-bys

15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.

a.prisoner-of-wars               c. prisoners-of-war

b.prisoners-of-wars               d. prisoner-of-war

16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.

a.      new reel    b. news reel    c. new-reels    d. news reels

17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her ______.

  a. elder sister    b. elder sister’s    c. elder sisters    d. elder sisters dress

18.All the people at the conference are ______.

   a. mathematic teachers   c. mathematics teacher

b.mathematics teachers  d. mathematic’s teachers

19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.

a.        some property         c. properties

b.        some properties        d. property

20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.

a.        deal    b. deals    c. dealing    d. are

21.He has written several books, but his last works _____ well known among his friends.

a.        have    b. have been    c. is    d. are

22.After he checked up my ______ heart, the doctor advised him to rest for a few days.

a.        father-in-law’s     c. father’s-in-law

b.        father-in-law       d. father’s-in-law’s

23.He told me _____ would come to his birthday party.

a.        many Jack friends     c. many Jack’s friend

b.        Jack’s many friends    d. many friends of Jack’s

24.I had my hair cut at the _____ around the corner.

a.barber    b. barbers    c. barber’s    d. barbers’

25.Yesterday evening we had a lovely evening at ______.

a.        Peter and Helen’s        c. Peter and Helen

b.        Peter and Helens         d. Peter’s and Helen’s

26.______ receives only a small portion of the total amount of the sun’s energy.

a.        The earth’s surface         c. The surface of earth

b.        The surface earth           d. The earth surface

27.Numerous materials are available to ______.

a.        today of designers            c. today’s of designers

b.        today’s designers             d. today designers

28.Why did you speak to Peter that way? Don’t you know he is an old friend of ______?

a.        my brother    b. my brothers    c. my brother’s     d. my brother’s friend

29.______ is a well-informed man. He can tell you anything you want to know.

a.        This John’s old friend          c. That’s Jahn’s old friend

b.        This old friend of John          d. This old friend of John’s

30.______ is too much for a little boy to carry.

a.A bike’s weight         c. The weight of a bike

b.The weights of a bike    d. Bile’s weight

31.Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.

a.        little    b. much    c. a large number of    d. a large amount of

32.When they got to the lecture-room, there were ______ left.

a.        only few seats    b. a very few seats    c. only a few seats  d. so a few seats

33.______ travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.

a.        A little mail    b. A piece of mail    c. A mail    d. A small mail

34.The Department purchased ______ to improve the working conditions there.

a.        a new equipment      c. new equipments

b.        a new piece of equipment    d. new pieces of equipments

35.The boy tried hard but there has been ______ in his work.

a.        little improvement    c. many improvements

b.        a little improvement   d. few improvements

36.Today’s modern TV cameras require ______ light as compared with the earlier models.

a.        only a few    b. only few    c. only a little    d. only little

37.No country can afford to neglect ______.

a.        an education    b. educations    c. education    d. the education

38.Please write the answers to the questions at the end of ______.

a.        eighth chapter    b. chapter eight    c. eight chapter    d. chapter the eight

39.______ is only surpassed by that of monkeys’ and apes’.

a.        The intelligent dog           c. The intelligence of dogs

b.        The dogs whose intelligence   d. The dogs being intelligent

40.All ______ must take the graduate Management Admission Test.

a.        business student   b. business’s students   c. business students   d. business’s student

41.______ anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself.

a.        Three minutes call    c. A three-minutes call

b.        Three-minute call     d. A three-minute call

42.The ______ about nuclear energy revolves around the waste problem.

a.        public’s chief concern    c. chief public concern

b.        public chief concern      d. chief concern of public’s

43.______ the first and largest ethnic group to work on the construction of the transcontinental railroad.

a.  Chinese were    b. The Chinese was    c. Chinese was    d. The Chinese were

44.______ can get a better view of the game than the participants.

a.        Looker-on    b. Lookers-on    c. Looker-ons    c. Lookers-ons

45.A group of spectators was dispersed by the police who ______ at the scene of the accidents within minutes.

a.        were    b. have been    c. was    d. has been

46.Our livestock ______ not as numerous as they used to be.

a.        is    b. are    c. be    d. been

47.One of the most surprising things is that ______ may come from petroleum.

a.        much of tomorrow food        c. many of tomorrow’s food

b.        much of the food of tomorrow   d. much of tomorrow’s food

48.Scott is an orphan but he received ______.

a.        very good education              c. a very good education

b.        very good educations             d. many good educations

49.After several day’s hardworking, we have made ______ on the design.

a.        much improvement                 c. many improvement

b.        several improvements               d. some improvement

50.The boy was very happy that his mother bought him a new pair of shoes at a ______ yesterday.

a.        shoes shop    b. shoe shop    c. shoes’s shop    d. shoe’s

51.Eggs, though nourishing, have ______ of fat content.

a.        large number    b. a large number    c. a high amount    d. the high amount

52.He has done some ______ on that subject from various angles over the past ten years.

a.        research    b. a research    c. researches    d. the researches

53.Recently, he has lost all his ______.

a.        wage and saving at card        c. wages and saving at card

b.        wages and savings at card       d. wages and savings at cards

54.The country’s wealth comes chiefly from its many ______.

a.        herd of cattle    b. heard of cattles    c. herds of cattle    d. herds of cattles

55.In Britain the ______ are all painted red.

a.        letter boxes    b. letters box    c. letters boxes    d. letters’s box

56.Ten years had passed. I found she had ______.

a.        a little white hair         c. a few white hair

b.        some white hair          d. much white hair

57.All his ______ far from satisfaction

a.        conduct is    b. conduct are    c. conducts is    d. conducts will be

58.Although the town had been attacked by the storm several times, ______ was done.

a.        a few damages    b. few damages    c. little damage    d. a little damage

59.He was ______ what to do.

a.        at his wit end    b. at his wits end    c. at his wit’s end    d. at his wits’s end

60.Would you like to have a cup of tea and ______ with me?

a two toasts    b. two pieces of toast   c. two piece of toasts    d. tow pieces of toasts

61.Accurate ______ covering the fact are not obtainable.

a.        datum    b. datums    c. data     d. datas

62.On Monday morning some teachers exchanged a few ______.

a.        how-are-yous              c. how-are-you’s

b.        of how-are-you’s           d. of how are you

63.Albert said he met the girl ______

a.        at his uncle’s Smith room       c. at his uncle Smith’s room

b.        at Smith’s his uncle’s room      d. at the room of his uncle’s Smith’s

64.It is four months since I last saw Keats ______.

a.        at Mrt Smith’s ,the book seller      c. at my aunt’s, a book seller

b.        at my aunt’s, Mrs Palmer’s         d. at Mrs Palmer’s, the book seller’s

65.This room is ______.

a.        the editor’s-in-chief’s office           c. the editor-in-chief’s office

b.        the editor-in-chief office              d. the editor’s-in-chief office

66.My old classmate, Comrade Sun ,works at ______.

a.        a teacher college          c. a teacher’s college

b.        a teachers’s college        d. a college of a teacher’s

67.The policemen put the criminal ______.

a.        in a iron    b. into a iron    c. in irons    d. into a pair of iron

68.Our teacher gave me ______.

a.        an advice    b. the advice    c. many advice    d. much advice

69.My mother cut the cloth with ______ scissors.

a.        a     b. two    c. a couple of    d. a pair of

70.My house is within ______ from the railway station.

  a. a stone’s throw    b. a throw of a stone    c. stone’s throw    d. the stone’s throw

 

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附:介词练习

1.  She is such an irritating woman, I don’t know how you can ______ her.

a. put up    b. stand up to    c. stand with    d. put up with

2.  To get my traveler’s check I had to ______ a special check to the bank for the total amount.

a. make for    b. make out    c. make off    d. make up

3.  Little boys are easily ______.

a. taken in    b. taken away    c. taken out    d. taken over

4.  The company is going to hand ______ the free samples tomorrow.

a. up    b. out    c. on    d. down

5.  It was purely ______ chance that the mistake was discovered.

a. in     b. for    c. by    d. from

6.  The magician picked several persons ______ from the audience and asked them to help him with the performance.

a. by accident    b. on occasion    c. on average    d. at random

7.  I left for the office earlier than usual this morning ______ traffic jam.

a. in case of    b. in line with    c. for the sake of    d. at the risk of

8.  Some areas, _______ their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.

a. but for    b. in spite of    c. due to    d. with regard to

9.  Visitors are asked to comply ______ the regulations.

a. at    b. in    c. with    d. on

10.     He ______ so much work that he couldn’t really do it efficiently.

a. put on    b. took on    c. brought on    d. turned on

11.     In order to save time, I ______ my shopping to once a week.

a. cut off    b. cut out    c. cut up    d. cut down

12.     The idea has ______ that science cannot be wrong.

a. piled up    b. picked up    c. grown up    d. put up

13.     he did everything he could to prevent if from ______ into fighting.

a. breaking off    b. breaking up    c. breaking out    d. breaking of

14.     The construction of the new building will cost ______ 1,000,000 dollars, and it’s not easy to get so much money.

a. at last    b. at most    c. at least    d. at large

15.     The thief ran away as fast as he could ______ the policeman.

a. in sight    b. within the sight of    c. within sight    d. at the sight of

16.     For too long, European can makers have fought to ______ old ways and old privileges.

a. hang on to    b. have access to    c. refer to    d. see to

17.     Whoever ______ a full night’s sleep will be more than rewarded in heightened productivity, creativity and focus.

a. invests at     b. invests in    c. invests by    d. invests with

18.     Prior ______ his departure, he wrote a letter to his mother.

a. of    b. from    c. to    d. in

19.     The company is very famous ______ the high quality of its products.

a. in    b. for    c. by    d. with

20.     Once he was given a chance to improve his position in the firm, he seized it ______ both hands and is now on his way to the top.

a. on    b. at    c. in    d. with

21.     These misfortunes almost deprived him ______ his future career.

a. with    b. of    c. from     d. beyond

22.     I don’t ______ the expense; I want the party to be a real success.

a. care for    b. care about    c. be in care of    d. take care of

23.     We must get the roof mended before the wet weather sets ______.

a. about    b. on    c. up    d. in

24.     The car pulled ______ beside me and the driver asked me to way to the Great Wall.

a. down    b. off    c. up    d. out

25.     After the war, many warships were laid ______ as they were not needed any longer.

a. up    b. aside     c. down    d. over

26.     When the rebellion died ______ things quickly returned to normal.

a. out    b. away    c. down     d. through

27.     I’ll pick you ______ at your college gate and take you straight to the station.

a. on    b. off    c. out     d. up

28.     Will you please see ______ our luggage when I am away?

a. to    b. in    c. with    d. for

29.     ______ they reached the small village before dusk.

a. Towards the end    b. By the end    c. In the end    d. At the end

30.     Mary has left the book on the table ______ purpose so that you can read it.

a. with    b. on    c. in    d. out of

31.     That noise is getting louder because the engineers are ______ the engine to see if the plane is ready to fly.

a. doing with    b. running up    c. turning in    d. trying for

32.     The government is looking ______ new methods of raising money without increasing taxes.

a. down on    b. upon    c. out for    d. around

33.     Man is superior to the animals ______ he sues language to convey his thoughts.

a. and that    b. in that     c. so that    d. in order that

34.     Not long ago, a person who I know every well was ______ an accident.

a. related to    b. included in    c. involved in    d. subject to

35.     I ______ to him for the error.

a. excused    b. pardoned     c. forgave    d. apologized

36.     Though we have no interests ______ common, we are good friends.

a. on    b. in    c. for    d. at

37.     The purse has returned to the original owner ______.

a. in a long time    b. in a long run     c. in no time    d. at no time

38.     We can’t hope to catch up with that car ______ us.

a. in advance of    b. in the front of    c. at the frontier of    d. ahead of

39.     Some animals will modify their behavior to ______ their environment.

a. adapt to    b. adopt to    c. suit to    d. conform to

40.     Don't ______ going abroad this summer, we may not have enough money.

a. count on    b. come on    c. attend upon    d. frown upon

41.     Don’t suspect your daughter ______ dishonesty.

a. of    b. for    c. with    d. to

42.     At the head of the valley we turned right and ______ the summit.

a. set up    b. took up    c. made for    d. went for

43.     Her type of women can ______ life much more easily.

a. cope with    b. take advantage of    c. take care of    d. look after

44.     The manager accused one of the hotel servants ______ stealing the money.

a. for     b. with    c. of    d. about

45.     It is difficult to _____ the implication between the lines.

a. get to    b. get into    c. get over    d. get at

46.     While living there, she ______ the local accent.

a. picked on    b. picked at    c. picked up    d. picked out

47.     We adopted the new method _____ raising our efficiency.

a. in the event of    b. on account of    c. with a view of    d. with regard to

48.     ______ the light of what you have told me, I will say that it is he who came here yesterday.

a. By    b. In    c. Of    d. Under

49.     They will place China in the front ranks of countries of the world ______ the output of major industrial products.

a. in support of    b. in connection with    c. in terms of    d. by means of

50.     When they had finished playing, the children were made to ______ all the toys they had taken out.

a. put off    b. put away    c. put up    d. put out

51.     He failed to supply the facts relevant ______ the case in question.

a. for    b. with     c. of    d. to

52.     In Britain, and on the Continent too, the Japanese are viewed _______ a threat to domestic industries.

a. like     b. as      c. with      d. for

53.     When Jack was eighteen he ______ going around with a strange set of people and staying out very late.

a. took up    b. took for    c. took to    d. took on

54.     While in London, we paid a visit to the hospital founded ______ the nurse Florence Nightingale.

a. in line with    b. in favor of    c. in place     d. in honor of

55.     A poor man has to ______ many thing which a rich man regards as almost necessaries in life.

a. go through    b. go without    c. go over    d. go about

56.     Digital computers are practical ______ their high speed of operation.

a. instead of    b. because of    c. regardless of    d. in spite of

57.     _____ the many hours of study that he devoted to the subject, he still found the subject matter difficult.

a. After    b. Due to    c. Despite    d. As for

58.     The early part of the concert ______ comparatively satisfactorily.

a. went after    b. went down   c. went off    d. went up

59.     Mary is _______ her face ready for the party.

a. clearing up    b. holding up    c. keeping up    d. making up

60.     _______ a prolonged spell of fine weather, they were able to complete the film within the month.

a. As to    b. Thanks to    c. In relation to    d. With respect to

61.     One day people will be able to go to the moon _____ holiday.

a. on    b. during    c. for    d. in

62.     How did it come _____ that you made a lot of mistakes in your homework?

a. about    b. after    c. with   d. to

63.     Whatever the rule is, you may be sure he will keep _____ it.

a. on    b. in    c. off    d. to

64.     In one firm alone over three hundred people were laid _____ during the last month.

a. in     b. out    c. on      d. off

65.     The safety of shops ______ sea depends much on the warnings given by lighthouses.

a. in    b. across    c. on     d. at

66.     The mass of an object is multiplied by the speed of light squared, _____ other words , the speed of light is multiplied by itself.

a. by   b. for    c. in   d. with

67.     The new system encourages companies to compete with each other ______ equal terms.

a. on   b. in     c. with    d. for

68.     You should stick _____ the point in debate.

a. to    b. at    c. in    d. for

69.     Tom has been sad recently, for his plan to go to college _____ at the last moment.

a. fell out    b. fell behind    c. fell in    d. fell through

70.     David likes country life and has decided to ______ farming.

a. go in for    b. go into    c. go through    d. go after

71.     The police haven’t caught the murder alive yet, but they are convinced that the really important facts of the case will soon ________ .

a. come into force   b. come into contact    c. come into light   d. come down to earth

72.     The teacher expects us to do all the exercises, to study the spelling list and to get our paper ______ time.

a. in      b. on     c. at    d. by

73.     Having been told bad weather was on the way, the climbers decided to ______ their attempt on Mount Tai until the following week.

a. give up    b. deny to   c. put off   d. refuse to

74.     Bill did not hear the telephone because he was completely  ______ his reading.

a. absorbed for    b. absorbed by    c. absorbed on    d. absorbed in

75.     Unwanted tickets can be given ______ at the theatre office window up to half an hour before the performance.

a. in    b. out    c. off    d. over

76.     Science was ______ regarded as a part of philosophy.

a. at time   b. at all time    c. at a time    d. at one time

77.     The newly designed machines are high ______ quality.

a. on    b. in    c. for    d. with

78.     Some quite artistic, yet inexpensive fabrics are now being _____ from British mills.

a. turned over    b. turned out    c. turned up    d. turned off

79.     The mother scolded the boy ______ not cleaning up his room.

a. to    b. with    c. at    d. for

80.     ______ my car is being made ready for a long journey.

a. In the moment    b. For the moment    c. At the moment    d. By the moment

81.     I’m bad ______ remembering faces.

a. at    b. in    c. with    d. on

82.     Oil drilling in that area has now stopped because the company has ______ money.

a. come out of    b. come off    c. run out of    d. run down

83.     The doctor was always ______ the poor and the sick, often giving them free medical services.

a. reminded of    b. absorbed in    c. tended by   d. concerned about

84.     The company will send a representative to ______ their business in that region.

a. attend to    b. attempt at    c. associate with    d. approve of

85.     Milk is ______ memories of home and mother so people away from home drink more milk.

a. bound to    b. kept to    c. referred to    d. tied to

86.     Despite the traffic lights ahead, the car continued ______ full speed.

a. with    b. in    on    d. at

87.     Something strange seems to be _____ me since I have been taking this drug.

a. running into    b. coming across    c. happening to    d. falling on

88.     The shopkeeper was ______ inside his own shop, and all the day’s money was stolen.

a. held over    b. held up    c. held out    d. held off

89.     Earth-like planets are extremely common in the Universe, ______ the latest computer simulation of the formation of the Solar System.

a. according to    b. in addition to    c. in regard to    d. thanks to

90.     In Brazil, spending on science and technology ______ just 0.6 percent of gross national product.

a. makes for    b. makes up for   c. accounts for    d. stands for

91.     ______, wherever he lives, a man belongs to some society.

a. For short     b. In short   c. Of short    d. On short

92.     A man who could ______ such treatment was a man of remarkable physical courage and moral strength.

a. bear upon    b. insist on    c. stand up to    d. persist in

93.     Is his action consistent ______ his principles?

a. with    b. in    c. of    d. by

94.     He is by far the best player ______ the team.

a. for    b. on    c. in    d. to

95.     A foreign firm has bought more than half of the shares in his company and ______.

a. got over it    b. overtaken it    c. taken it over     d. overcome it

96.     After a heated bargaining they agreed ______ the price for the car.

a. to    b. with    c. on    d. in

97.     _______ all the difficulties and discomforts, they went on working at the design.

a. Because of    b. In proportion with    c. As a result of    d. In spite of

98.     all questions left ______ by history must be settled one by one.

a. alone    b. off    c. out    d. over

99.     It is just three o’clock p.m. The plane just _____ five minutes ago.

a. took off    b. took up    c. took out    d. took in

100.  The government warned the people living in the forest to be ______ fire.

a. with regard to   b. on guard    c. on guard against    d. in regard to

101.  During sleep blood pressure is normally ______ its lowest.

a. in    b. for    c. at    d. by

102.  The parents and the children will have to leave the country ______ good.

a. with   c. over   c. on    d. for

103.  Neither their parents nor their friends have approved ______ their marriage yet.

a. for    b. of    c. to    d. with

104.  Classroom testing, if well done, most certainly ______ a stimulus to study and real learning.

a. acts for    b. acts on    c. acts as    d. acts to

105.  In the experiment we kept a watchful eye ______ the developments and recorded every detail.

a. in    b. at     c. for    d. on

106. The French pianist who had been praised very highly ______ to be a great disappointment.

  a. turned up    b. turned in    c. turned out    d. turned down

107. In the advanced course students must take performance tests ______ monthly intervals.

a. in     b. over    c. at    d. between

108. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are ______.

  a. out of work    b. out of reach    c. out of practice    d. out of stock

109. In the United States professors have many other duties ______ teaching, such as administrative or research work.

  a. besides   b. except   c. but    d. with

110. he attempted ______ to set up a company of his own.

  a. with vain    b. on vain    c. in vain    d. of vain

111. On hearing the news that her father died, she ______ tears.

  a. burst out    b. burst in    c. burst into    d. burst forth

112. She was annoyed at his comment, thinking that he visitor _____ her.

  a. looked down   b. looked highly of     c. looked low at    d. looked down upon

113. ______ comparison to my boyhood, my undergraduate years in Oklahoma were paradise.

  a. In    b. With    c. By     d. For

114. The United States is a major consumer of coffee, yet it does not have the climate to grow any ______ its own.

  a. on    b. for    c. of    d. to

115. The accounts have always been handled ______ the banks policies.

  a. in accordance with    c. in connection with

  c. in contrast with       d. in line with

116. His inability to learn foreign languages was an obstacle ______ his career.

  a. of    b. to    c. for    d. as

117. The purpose of the official inquiry is to ______ the true facts leading to the loss of the ship at sea.

  a. come at    b. come for    c. come into    d. come over

118. Business picked up in the stores during December, but ______ again after Christmas.

  a. dropped off    b. dropped out    c. dropped over    d. dropped on

119. Many words associated with life in the West are Spanish ______ origin.

  a. on    b. in    c. at     d. from

120. The custom of visiting friends, relatives and neighbors on New Year’s Day is one the Old World traditions that has ______ a new form in the United States.

  a. taken up    b. taken on     c. taken over    d. taken off

121. Some workers fear the loss of social identity that can ______ not having a job.

  a. result  in    b. result from    c. bring up    d. bring on

122. Most  of the leading food shops have promised to ______ prices until after the new year.

  a. keep off    b. keep down    c. keep out    d. keep back

123. ______ classical music, which follows formal European traditions, jazz is a spontaneous and free form.

  a. In comparison with    b. In connection with    c. In contrast to    d. In regard to

124. Alice ______ when a crowd from a train rushed through    the gate.

  a. looked after    b. looked in    c. looked over    d. looked up

125. The news of important events is broadcast often _______ over television.

  a. on the average    b. on the contrary    c. on the spot    d. on the whole

 

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返回冠词和数词目录

2. 冠词和数词

2.1 不定冠词的用法

  冠词本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词,另一种是不定冠词,还有一种是零冠词。

  不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。

 1) 表示"一个",意为one;指某人或某物,意为a certain。例如:

    A Mr. Ling is waiting for you. 有位姓凌的先生在等你。

 2) 代表一类人或物。例如:

    A knife is a tool for cutting with. 刀是切割的工具。

    Mr. Smith is an engineer. 史密斯先生是工程师。

 3) 组成词组或成语,如a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try /keep an eye on / all of a sudden等。

 

返回冠词和数词目录

2.2 定冠词的用法

   定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但意义较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。

 1)特指双方都明白的人或物。例如:

   Take the medicine. 把药吃了。

 2)上文提到过的人或事。例如:

   He bought a house. I've been to the house. 他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。

 3)指世上独一物二的事物,如the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth等。

 4)与单数名词连用表示一类事物,如the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。

 5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only,very,same等前面。例如:

   Where do you live? I live on the second floor.  你住在哪?我住在二层。

   That's the very thing I've been looking for.  那正是我要找的东西。

 6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体。例如:

    They are the teachers of this school.(指全体教师)

    They are teachers of this school.  (指部分教师)

 7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前。例如:

   She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。

 8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前。例如:

    the People's Republic of China  中华人民共和国

    the United States  美国

 9)用在表示乐器的名词之前。例如: 

She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。

 10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人。例如:

    the Greens  格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)

 11) 用在惯用语中。例如:

   in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow 

the day before yesterday, the next morning, 

in the sky (water,field,country) 

in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, 

in the middle (of), in the end,

on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre

 

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2.3 零冠词的用法

  1) 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary。

 2)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词。例如:

   They are teachers. 他们是教师。

 3)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词。例如:

   Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。

 4)物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词。例如:

   Man cannot live without water. 离开水人就无法生存。

 5)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词。例如:

    We go to school from Monday to Friday.  我们从星期一到星期五都上课。

 6)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词。例如:

    The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。

 7)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词,如have breakfast,play chess。

 8)当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词。例如:

   I can't write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。

 9)当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词,如by bus,by train。

 10)有些个体名词不用冠词,如school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court 等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义。例如:

    go to hospital    去医院看病

    go to the hospital  去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)

 11)不用冠词的序数词;

   a. 序数词前有物主代词时。

   b. 序数词作副词。例如:He came first in the race. 他跑步得了第一。

   c. 在固定词组中,如at(the)first, first of all, from first to last等。

 

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2.4 冠词与形容词+名词结构

  1) 两个形容词都有冠词,表示两个不同的人或物。例如:

   He raises a black and a white cat. 他养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。

    The black and the white cats are hers. 这只黑猫和白猫都是他的。

 2) 如后一个形容词无冠词,则指一人或一物。例如:

He raises a black and white cat. 他养了一只花猫。

 

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2.5 冠词位置

1) 不定冠词位置

 不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。注意: 

 a. 位于such,what,many,half等形容词之后。例如:

   I have never seen such an animal. 我从来没见过这样的动物。

   Many a man is fit for the job. 许多人适合这岗位。

 b. 当名词前的形容词被副词as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后。例如:

   It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. 我从未这么高兴过。

   So short a time  如此短的时间

   Too long a distance 距离太远了

 c. quite,rather与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。但当rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可,如:rather a cold day/a rather cold day。

 d. 在as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当表语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形容词后。例如:

   Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇还是发抖。

2) 定冠词位置

   定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在all, both,double,half,twice,three times等词之后,名词之前。例如:

   All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。

 

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2.6 数词

   表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词,数词分为基数词和序数词。表示数目多少的数词叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。

 一、基数词

  1)基数词一般可写成如345或three hundred and forty-five。

  2)基数词一般是单数形式,但遇下列情况,常用复数:

   a. 与of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,如scores of people 指许多人;

   b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里。例如:

They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了。

   c. 表示"几十岁"。

   d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数。

   e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如Three fives is(are)fifteen。

 二、序数词

   序数词的缩写形式如first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st等。 

 三、 数词的用法

  1)倍数表示法

   a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as。例如

    I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。

   b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length…) of…。例如:

    The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49倍。

   c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than…。例如:

     The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加8%。

   d. 还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍。例如:

   The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了4倍。

  2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于1时,分子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数。例如:

     1/3   one-third; 3/37    three and three-sevenths.

 

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返回冠词练习答案

2.7 冠词练习

1.When Linda was a child, her mother always let her have ______ bed.

a.        the breakfast in    b. the breakfast in the     c. breakfast in    d. breakfast in the

2.He has promised to give up ______ hundreds of times.

a.        a tobacco    b. tobacco    c. the tobacco    d. tobaccos

3.______ usually go to church every Sunday.

a.        The Brown    b. A Brown    c. Browns    d. The Browns

4.The train is running fifty miles ______.

a.        an hour    b. one hour    c. the hour    d. a hour

5.He can play almost every kind of music instrument but he is good ______.

a.        at the flute     b. at flute     c. at a flute     d. at that flute

6.The investigators found that more should be done for ______ in India.

a.        those poor    b. a poor    c. poor    d. the poor

7.You look in high spirit. You must have ______ during your holiday.

a.        wonderful time   b.  a wonderful time   c. the wonderful time   d. some wonderful time

8.The city assigned a policeman to the school crossing because ______ traffic there was so heavy.

a.        a     b. an    c. the    d. one

9.A new teacher was sent to the village in place of ______ one who had retired.

a.        a       b. the    c. an    d. its

10.Virtue and vice are before you;______ leads you to happiness,______ to misery.

a. the former…latter        b. a former…a latter

c.        the former…the latter   d. former…latter

11.The children in the kinder-garden soon took ______ to their teachers.

a.        quite fancy  b. a quite fancy    c. quite a fancy    d. the quite fancy

12.______ tend to bemoan the lack of character in the young generation.

a.        The old    b. Old    c. Elderly    d. Older

13.A man suffering from a chock should be given ______.

a.        hot sweet tea   b. a hot sweet tea  c. the hot sweet tea   d. one hot sweet tea

14.He answered my questions with ______ not to be expected of an ordinary schoolboy.

a.        his accuracy   b. a accuracy    c. the accuracy    d. an accuracy

15.If you go by train you can have quite ______ comfortable journey.

a.        the    b. one   c. a   d. that

16.We’re going to ______ with ______ today, aren’t we?

a.        the tea…the Smiths   b. tea…those Smiths    c. a tea…a Smith   d. tea…the Smiths

17.I want an assistant with ______ knowledge of French and ______ experience of office routine.

a.        the…the    b. a…the   c. a…an   d. the…an

18.Ann’s habit of riding a motorcycle up and down the road early in the morning annoyed the neighbors and ______ they took her to the court.

a.        in the end    b. at the end    c. in an end    d. in end

19.It is reported that today ______ president will have lunch with ______ President Omon.

a.        the…the    b. a…a    c. the…/    d. /…/

20.Tianan Men Square and ______ Great Wall are tow of the places everyone should see in ______ People’s Republic of China.

a.        the…the   b. /…/   c. the…/    d. /…the

21.It has long been known that there is an electric field ______.

a.        inside the earth   b. inside earth   c. inside an earth   d. on earth

22.______ much harder work, the volunteers were able to place the raging forest fire______.

a. By the means of…under the control     b. By means of…under control

c.By means of…under a control          d. By a means of…under control

23.No sooner had the man departed than the tree began dropping coffee beans ______.

a.        by the thousand    b. by a thousand    c. by thousands    d. by thousand

24.He expressed ______ of their having ever been married.

a.        the doubt    b. a doubt    c. doubt    d. an doubt

25.He saw through the little boy’s tricks ______.

a.        at glance   b. at the glance    c. at some glance   d. at a glance

26.Their victory is ______,for they’ve lost too many men.

a.        out of question   b. out of the question   c. out question   d. of question

27.Many a girl wants to become ______.

a.        some secretary    b. a secretary    c. secretary    d. secretaries

28.He grabbed me ______ and pulled me onto the bus.

a.        a arm   b. an arm   c. the arm   d. by the arm

29.I’ll come in ______ minute; in fact I’ll come ______ moment I’m through.

a./…the     b. a…the    c. the…a    d. /…/

30.This is one of ______ interesting books on your subject.

a.        the most   b. the most of the    c. most   d. most of the

31.He enjoys life ______ the “Queen Anne”.

a.        on a board   b . on board   c. in the board    d. board

32.He lost his fob and ______ his wife left him.

a.        on that top   b. on top of that   c. on a top of that   d. on the top

33.Most of the representatives think that ______ the meeting was very successful.

a.        on whole of   b. on a whole   c. on the whole   d. on the whole that

34.Under no circumstances will there be wage control while I am ______ of the government.

a.        the head   b. a head   c. head   d. that head

35.Like his sister, David needed ______ from some generous person in order to get home.

a.        a ride   b. some ride   c. ride   d. the ride

36.The brain’s left hemisphere controls logic and language, while ______controls intuitive talents and musical ability.

a.        the right    b. a right   c. that right    d. right one

37.______ is setting up a research team to see how children react to video games.

a.        The Japan’s Health Ministry      b. Japan’s health Ministry

b.        A Japan’s health Ministry        d. Japan health Ministry

38.Unlike Americans, who seem to prefer coffee,______ a great deal of tea.

a.        English drink    b. The English drink   c. English man drink   d. the English drinks

39.Hundreds of people are ______ now, so there are about 50 people trying for the same position.

a.out of the work   b. out work   c. out of work   d. out of a work

40.His mother taught ______ ,but his father was only a blue-collar worker.

a.        piano   b. an piano   c. the piano   d. a piano

41.Contrary to what I had expected, he lost for ______.

a.        second time    b. a second time   c. second times    d. the second time

42.Fashions change and people change too, but the old feeling remains ______.

a.        the same   b. same   c. that same    d. as same

43.We are going to dine tomorrow with ______ to celebrate Christmas Day.

a.        the Cunning   b. Cunnings   c. The Cunnings   d. Cunning’s

44.This is ______ which is collected before the first rain in Spring.

a.        one tea    b. a tea    c. the tea    d. that tea

45.______ is known by its note,______ is known by his talk.

a.        A bird/a man    b. One bird/one man    c. The bird/the man    d. Bird/man

46.Never travel with ______ who leaves you in case of danger.

a.        the friend    b. that friend    c. a friend    d. friend

47.Do you think it possible for the North Pole to have ______ a few thousand years from now?

a.        Shanghai   b. a Shanghai    c. the Shanghai    d. one Shanghai

48.I don’t think ______ is a better car than our makes.

a.        a Ford    b. Ford’s    c. the Ford     d. Ford

49.I didn’t know why he looked angry when I patted him ______.

a.        on the head    b. on head    c. on a head    d. on his head

50.he never fails to give you ______ when you are in trouble.

a.        his helping hands   b. the helping hand   c. helping hands   d. a helping hand

51.The historical events of that period are arranged ______.

a.        in alphabetical order       b. in an alphabetical order

b.        in the alphabetical orders   d. in a alphabetical orders

52.The like to take a vacation ______.

a.        one time the year    b. one time in a year    c. once a year    d. once in a year

53.What is Todger?” “He is ______.”

a.        a poet and novelist     b. a poet and a novelist

b.        poet and novelist      d. the poet and novelist

54.“How did you pay the workers?”

As a rule, they are paid ______.”

a.        by an your    b. by the hour     c. by a hour    d. by hours

55.The DMZ extends about two hundred kilometers ______.

a. from east to west            b. from the east to west  

c. from the east to the west      d. from eastern to western

56.What ______ are you planning to buy?

a.        make of car    b. make of the car    c. make of a car    d. make of cars

57.______,you can’t fool her.

a.        The child though Rowena is      b. Though child Rowena is

b.        As child Rowena is             d. Child as Rowena is

58.What’s ______ is to get information about the situation first.

a.        the wisest    b. a wisest    c. the wiser    d. wisest

59.The differences between ______ are gradually being eliminated.

a.        the town and the country       b. town and country

b.        a town and a country          d. a town and the country

60.Scientists hope to send an expedition to Mars during ______.

a. the 1990s     b. the 1990    c. 1990s    d. 1990’s

 

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返回数词练习答案

2.8 数词练习

1.______ martyrs have heroically laid down their lives for the people.

a. Thousand upon thousand of     b. Thousand and thousands of

c. Thousands upon thousands of   d. Thousand and thousand of

2.They received ______ of letters about their TV programs.

a. dozen    b. dozen and dozen    c score    d. dozens

3.Who is that man,______ in the front row?

a. one    b. the one   c. first    d. the first

4.We have produced ______ this year as we did in 1993.

a. as much cotton twice      b. as twice much cotton

c. much as twice cotton      d. twice as much cotton

5.The earth is about ______ as the moon.

a. as fifty time big   b. fifty times as big   c. as big fifty time   d. fifty as times big

6.The population of many Alaskan cities has ______ in the past three years.

a. more than doubled  b. more doubled than  c. much than doubled  d. much doubled than

7.The moon is about _____ in diameter as diameter as the earth.

a. one-three as large  b. one three as large   c. one-third as large  d. one third as large

8.Five hundred yuan a month _____ enough to live on.

a. is   b. are   c. is being   d. has been

9.______ of the buildings were ruined.

a. Three fourth   b. Three four    c. Three-fourths    d. Three-four

10.Consult _____ for questions about earthquakes.

a. the six index   b. index six   c. sixth index   d. index numbering six

11.She went to the countryside ______.

a.       in the morning at nine/on June first,1968    b. on June first,1968/in the morning at nine

b.      at nine in the morning/on June first,1968    d. on June first,1968/at nine in the morning

12.Three-fourths of the surface of the earth ______ covered with water.

a. are   b. is   c. were   d. be

13.This month the production of stainless steel in our steelworks has increased ______ 2,000 tons.

a.       with   b. in   c. on   d. by

14.With the miniaturization of the structural components the weight of these electric devices has decreased ________ 30 percent.

a. as   b. with   c. in   d. by

15.The Olympic Games are held ______.

a.       every four years   b. every four year   c. every fourth years   d. every four-years

16.As he is not in good health, he goes to his factory only ______ just to learn something about the progress of experiment.

a.       once a week   b. one week   c. one time a week   d. one a week

17.Three students ______ in this university come from the South.

a. of ten   b. out of in ten   c. out of ten   d. in tens

18.Strings of the same thickness made of nylon are ______.

a.       five times stronger than those      b. five time stronger than those

b.      five times strong than those       d. five times stronger as those

19.the wheels of the old wagon are nearly ______ those of a modern car.

a.       twice the size of   b. twice size of   c. twice sizes of   d. twice the size of

20.One day on the moon is ______.

a.       two Earth week long    b. two Earth weeks long  

b.      two Earth weeks longer  d. two Earth weeks length

 

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返回限定词练习答案

附:限定词练习

1.My hand was hurt. Could you do ______ typing for me?

a.       some    b. many   c. such   d. any

2.There were ______ students in the reading room.

a.       neither     b. not     c. no     d. none

3.If it is of ______ use to you, please take it.

a.       some    b. many    c. no    d. any

4.I’ve invited five people to tea this afternoon. Out of them, only John and Mary can come,______ can’t.

a.       other   b. the other    c. others   d. the others

5.Most English people go to Spain for the sea, the sun and all the ______ things associated with a relaxing holiday.

a.       any    b. another    c. some    d. other

6.______ were ironed by my mother yesterday.

a.       The all sheets    b. all of sheets    c. All the sheets    d. Sheets of all

7.As usual,______ man was given his individual assignment.

a.       every    b. each    c. all    d. both

8.They saw ______ girls the day before yesterday.

a.       both the other two   b. the two other both   c. the both other two   d. the both two other

9.One uses the freezer, the computer and the business school to manufacture ______ dishes in never a tick longer than 100 seconds.

a.       such others   b. other such   c. such other   d. other such a

10.______ boxer was strong, but ______ had a good build and was light on his feet.

a.Either/every   b. Neither/each   c. Both/both   d. All the/all

11.______ was astonished to find himself rooting and shouting in a most undignified manner.

a. Many elderly man            b. A many elderly men 

c. Many an elderly man          d. Many elderly men

12.I know now, of course, there is ______ as love.

a.       no such a thing   b. not such thing   c. not a thing   d. no such thing

13.As there were ______ life-boats for everybody,40 lives were lost.

a.       as little    b. so little    c. too few    d. very few

14.He was brave;_____ soldiers fought so bravely in that battle.

a.       no others   b. no another   c. no other    d. not other

15.I don’t think we have met before. I’m afraid you’re confusing me with ______.

a.       some other    b. some other person    c. other person    d. one other

16.Weekends last from Friday evening to Sunday night.______ days are week-days.

a.       The other    b. Another    c. Other    d. Every other

17.We had ______ good time that we hated to leave the party.

a.       such a    b. such    c. so   d. pretty

18.Paris is ______ that  we can hardly visit all the beautiful parks in two or three days.

a.   such large a city    b. so a large city    c. such a large city    d. a such large city

19.Deputies to the National  People’s Congress are elected_______.

a.   every four year    b. each four years    c. every of four years    d. every four years

20.There is hardly ______difference between the two libraries.

a.    no    b. any    c. much    d. some

21.For young people, Carpenter is ______ singer.

  a. most their popular   b. most popular of theirs

c.their most popular   d. most popular of their

22.______ are about the American Independent War.

a.       Both book   b. Both books   c. All the two book   d. all of two books

23.When I am in trouble, my friends will give me their hands without ______ hesitation.

a.       some   b. a   c. any   d. the

24.You’re welcome to my house ______ time you’d like.

a.       the    b. any    c. no   d. some

25.He was very much disappointed because ______ went to his wedding party.

a.       no his friends   b. all no his friends   c. none his friends    d. none of his friends

26.You shouldn’t stop your car here since there is a sign ‘______’.

a.       Not Parking   b. No Park    c. No Parking    d. Not a Park

27.I cannot invited ______ of you, since I’ve got only one extra ticket.

a.       either   b. both   c. some   d. one

28.______ the idioms are not easy to remember and use.

a.       Every   b. Some   c. All   d. Each

29.There is a line of trees in ______ side of the river.

a.       every   b. each   c. per   d. none

30.______ our countries are developing countries.

a.       Each   b. Either   c. Every   d. Both

31.The scientist wrote a number of books, but ______ books were novels.

a.       last two his   b. his last two   c. two his last    d. last two of his

32.Have you got ______ copies to go around?

a.       much   c. a large amount of   c. enough   d. great

33.You can never use my car. ____ time should you touch it.

a.       At no   b. At any   c. any   d. No

34.My brother is going on the picnic with ______ friends.

a.       his two little other    b. other his two little   c. his other little two   d. his two other little

35.Those examples are not enough, you should give ______ examples to make your argument convincing.

a.       some   b. any   c. some more   d. any more

36.______ feels entitled to more in life than just housework.

a.       Many women   b. A lot of woman   c. Many a woman   d. A few woman

37.You will have to practice ______ times before you can do it.

a.many more   b. more many   c. more often   d. more several

38.It is ______ work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it.

a.       a so unusual   b. such an unusual   c. so unusual   d. such unusual

39.This cake is delicious, but I can’t eat ______.

a.       some   b. no    c. any   d. much

40.Here are some books by American writers. You can read ______ you like.

a. any   b. which   c. what one   d. whichever one

 

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3. 代词

   代词是代替名词的词类。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的功能。英语中的代词,按其意义、特征及在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、自身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、关系代词和不定代词八种。

 一、人称代词是表示"我"、"你"、"他"、"她"、"它"、"我们"、"你们"、"他们"的词。人称代词有人称、数和格的变化,见下表:

单数

复数

主格

宾格

主格

宾格

第一人称

I

me

we

us

第二人称

you

you

you

you

第三人称

he

him

they

them

she

her

they

them

it

it

they

them

  例如:He is my friend. 他是我的朋友。

      It's me. 是我。

 二、 物主代词是表示所有关系的代词,也可叫做代词所有格。物主代词分形容性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种,其人物和数的变化见下表。

单数

复数

人称

第一人称

第二人称

第三人称

第一人称

第二人称

第三人称

形容词性物主代词

my

your

his/her/its

our

your

their

名词性物主代词

mine

yours

his/hers/its

ours

yours

theirs

     例如: I like his car. 我喜欢他的小汽车。

          Our school is here,and theirs is there. 我们的学校在这儿,他们的在那儿。

 三、 指示代词表示"那个"、"这个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词。指示代词有this,that,these,those等。例如:

     That is a good idea. 那是个好主意。

 四、 表示"我自己"、"你自己"、"他自己"、"我们自己"、"你们自己"和"他们自己"等的代词,叫做自身代词,也称为"反身代词"。例如:

      She was talking to herself.  她自言自语。

 五、 表示相互关系的代词叫相互代词,有each other 和one another两组,但在运用中,这两组词没什么大的区别。例如:

      They love each other.  他们彼此相爱。

 六、 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。常见的不定代词有a11,both,each,every等,以及含有some-,any-,no-等的合成代词,如anybody, something,no one。这些不定代词大都可以代替名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语,但none和由some,any,no等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语;every和no只能作定语。例如:

--- Do you have a car?  --你有一辆小汽车吗?

--- Yes,I have one.   --是的,我有一辆。

--- I don't know any of them.  他们,我一个也不认识。

 七、 疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which等。在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句。疑问代词都可用作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句)例如:

      Tell me who he is.  告诉我他是谁。

 八、 关系代词有who,whom,whose,that,which,as等,可用作引导从句的关联词。它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词(先行词)。例如:

       He is the man whom you have been looking for.  他就是你要找的那个人。

 

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3.1 人称代词的用法

1)人称代词的主格在句子中作主语或主语补语。例如:

    John waited a while but eventually he went home. 约翰等了一会儿,最后他回家了。

    John hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she. 约翰希望那位乘客是玛丽,还真是她。

说明:在复合句中,如果主句和从句主语相同,代词主语要用在从句中,名词主语用在主句中。例如:

    When he arrived, John went straight to the bank. 约翰一到就直接去银行了。

 2)人称代词的宾格在句子中作宾语或介词宾语,但在口语中也能作主语补语,第一人称在省略句中,还可以作主语。例如:

    I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her. 我看到她和他们在一起,至少我认为是她。(her做宾 语,them做介词宾语,her做主语补语)

   a. -- Who broke the vase? --谁打碎了花瓶?

    b. -- Me.            --我。(me做主语补语= It's me.)

说明:在上面两例句中,her和me分别作主语补语。现代英语中多用宾格,在正式文体中这里应为she和I。

  

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3.2 人称代词之主、宾格的替换

1) 宾格代替主格

     a.在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在not 后,多用宾语。

   ---- I like English.      --我喜欢英语。

   ---- Me too.       --我也喜欢。

   ---- Have more wine?   --再来点酒喝吗?

   ---- Not me.       --我可不要了。

   b.在表示比较的非正式的文体中,常用宾格代替主格。 但如果比较状语的谓语保留,则主语只能用主格。

    He is taller than I/me.

    He is taller than I am.

2) 主格代替宾格

     a. 在介词but,except 后,有时可用主格代替宾格。

     b. 在电话用语中常用主格。   

    ---- I wish to speak to Mary.   --我想和玛丽通话。

    ---- This is she.        --我就是玛丽。

     注意:在动词be 或to be 后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。

    I thought it was she.   我以为是她。      (主格----主格)

    I thought it to be her.                (宾格----宾格)

    I was taken to be she.  我被当成了她。      (主格----主格)

    They took me to be her.  他们把我当成了她。     (宾格----宾格)

 

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3.3 代词的指代问题

  1)不定代词 anybody,everybody,nobody,anyone, someone, everyone,no one, 及whoever和person在正式场合使用时,可用he, his, him代替。例如:

   Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来,是吗?

 2)动物名词的指代一般用it或they代替,有时也用he, she,带有亲切的感情色彩。例如:

   Give the cat some food. She is hungry. 给这猫一些吃的。她饿了。

 3)指代车或国家,船舶的名词,含感情色彩时常用she。

 

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3.4 并列人称代词的排列顺序

  1) 单数人称代词并列作主语时,其顺序为:第二人称 -> 第三人称 -> 第一人称,即you-> he/she; it -> I。例如:

   You, he and I should return on time.

 2) 复数人称代词作主语时,其顺序为:第一人称 -> 第二人称 -> 第三人称,即we ->you->they。

   注意: 在下列情况中,第一人称放在前面。

   a. 在承认错误,承担责任时,

     It was I and John that made her angry. 是我和约翰惹她生气了。

b. 在长辈对晚辈,长官对下属说话时,如长官为第一人称, 如:

I and you try to finish it. 我和你去弄好它。

   c. 并列主语只有第一人称和第三人称时。

   d. 当其他人称代词或名词被定语从句修饰时。

 

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3.5 物主代词

  1)物主代词既有表示所属的作用又有指代作用。例如:

John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.

约翰割破了手指,显而易见,他桌子上有个破玻璃杯。

物主代词有形容词性(my, your等)和名词性(mine, yours等)两种,形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的--'s属格结构。例如:

   Jack's cap   意为The cap is Jack's。

   His cap    意为The cap is his。

 2) 名词性物主代词的句法功能

    a. 作主语。例如:

   May I use your pen? Yours works better. 我可以用一用你的钢笔吗? 你的比我的好用。

   b. 作宾语。例如:

   I love my motherland as much as you love yours. 我深爱我的祖国就像你深爱你的祖国一样。

   c. 作介词宾语。例如:

Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.

你应当按我所用的词义去解释我说的话,而不能按你自己的去解释。

   d. 作主语补语。例如:

   The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。

 

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3.6 双重所有格

   物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which等词一起前置,修饰一个名词,而必须用双重所有格。公式为:a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。例如:a friend of mine, each brother of his.

    

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7 .反身代词

1)     列表

单数

复数

人称

第一人称

第二人称

第三人称

第一人称

第二人称

第三人称

人称代词

I

you

he/she/it

we

you

they

反身代词

myself

yourself

yourself/herself/himself

ourselves

yourselves

themselves

 另外:one的反身代词为oneself

 2)做宾语

  a. 有些动词需有反身代词,如absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave等。例如:

   We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。

    Please help yourself to some fish.  请你随便吃点鱼。

  b. 用于及物动词+宾语+介词,如take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth等。例如:

I could not dress(myself)up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。

注:有些动词后不跟反身代词,如:get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up等。例如:

    Please sit down. 请坐。

 3) 用作表语,如结构be oneself。例如:

I am not myself today.  我今天不舒服。

  4) 用作同位语

   The thing itself is not important.  事情本身并不重要。

 5) 在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如:No one but myself(me)is hurt.

注意:

    a. 反身代词本身不能单独作主语。

   (错) Myself drove the car.

   (对) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。

    b. 但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是myself 作主语。例如:

Charles and myself saw it. 查尔斯和我看见了这件事。

 

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3.8 相互代词

1)相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的。例如:

   It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other. 

显而易见,不同文化的人总是相互借鉴的。

2)相互代词的句法功能:

   a. 作动词宾语;

     People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。

   b. 可作介词宾语;

     Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other.  吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。

说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other, 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多。例如:

   He put all the books beside each other/one another. 他把所有书并列摆放起来。

   Usually these small groups were independent of each other. 这些小团体通常是相互独立的。

   c. 相互代词可加-'s构成所有格。例如:

     The students borrowed each other's notes. 学生们互借笔记。

 

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3.9 指示代词

  1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词。例如:

 

单数

复数

限定词

This girl is Mary.

Those men are my teachers.

代词

This is Mary.

Those are my teachers.

 2) 指示代词的句法功能;

  a. 作主语。例如:

    This is the way to do it.    这事儿就该这样做。

  b. 作宾语。例如:

    I like this better than that.   我喜欢这个甚至那个。

  c. 作主语补语。例如:

    My point is this.          我的观点就是如此。

  d. 作介词宾语。例如:

    I don't say no to that.      我并未拒绝那个。

    There is no fear of that.    那并不可怕。

 说明1:指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人,但作其他句子成分时只能指物,不能指人。例如:

        (对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。(that作主语,指人)

        (对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词)

        (错)He is going to marry this. (this作宾语时不能指人)

        (对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)

 说明2:That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:

        (对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。

        (对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人)

        (错) He admired that who danced well. (that作宾语时不能指人)

        (对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)

        (对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)

 

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3.10 疑问代词

  1) 疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。疑问代词有下列几个:

    指人: who, whom, whose

    指物: what

    既可指人又可指物: which

 2) 疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前,没有性和数的变化,除who之外也没有格的变化。what, which, whose还可作限定词。试比较:

     疑问代词:Whose are these books on the desk?   桌上的书是谁的?

          What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion? 美国的领土扩张是朝哪个方向的?

    限定词:Whose books are these on the desk? 桌上的书是谁的?

What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States? 

哪些事件使密西西比河以东的大部分土地归属于美国?

     说明1:无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what所指的范围是无限的,而which则指在一定的范围内。例如:

             Which girls do you like best? 你喜欢哪几个姑娘?

            What girls do you like best?  你喜欢什么样的姑娘?

     说明2:Whom是who的宾格,在书面语中,它作动词宾语或介词宾语,在口语中作宾语时,可用who代替,但在介词后只能用whom, 例如:

            Who(m)did you meet on the street? 你在街上遇到了谁?(作动词宾语)

          Who(m) are you taking the book to? 你要把这书带给谁?(作介词宾语,置句首)

         To whom did you speak on the campus? 你在校园里和谁讲话了?(作介词宾语,置介词后,不能用who取代。)

   说明3: 疑问代词用于对介词宾语提问时,过去的文体中介词和疑问代词通常一起放在句首,现代英语中,疑问代词在句首,介词在句末。例如:

             For what do most people live and work? 大部分人生活和工作的目的是什么?(旧文体)

What are you looking for? 你在找什么?(现代英语)

     说明4: 疑问代词还可引导名词性从句。例如:

             I can't make out what he is driving at. 我不知道他用意何在。

           Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed?  你能告诉我床上的蓝衬衣是谁的吗?

Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you.

你说的我大部分同意,但并不完全赞同。

 

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11. 关系代词

  1) 关系代词用来引导定语从句。它代表先行词,同时在从句中作一定的句子成分。例如:

The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. 跟我讲话的姑娘是我表妹。

该句中whom既代表先行词the girl,又在从句中作介词to的宾语。

2)     关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分。在限定性定语从句中,that 可指人也可指物,见表:

 

指人

指物

指人或指物

主 格

who

which

that

宾 格

whom

that

that

属 格

whose

of which/whose

of which/whose

 例如:This is the pencil whose point is broken. 这就是那枝折了尖的铅笔。(whose 指物,在限定性定语从句中作定语)

     He came back for the book which he had forgotten. 他回来取他丢下的书。(which指物,在限定性定语从句中作宾语,可以省略)

说明:非限定性定语从句中,不能用that作关系代词。

 3) 关系代词which的先行词可以是一个句子。例如:

    He said he saw me there, which was a lie. 他说在那儿看到了我,纯属谎言。

   说明: 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略。另外,关系代词that在从句中作表语时也可省略, 例如:

     I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew.  我过去懂拉丁语,现在大都忘了。

   He's changed. He's not the man he was. 他变化很大,已不是过去的他了。

   

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3.12 every , no, all, both, neither, nor

  1)不定代词有all , both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no 以及some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing , nobody, no one, none, everybody, everyone.等。

 2)不定代词的功能与用法

     a. 除every 和no外不定代词既可用作名词,也可用作形容词。every和no在句中只能作定语。例如:

     I have no idea about it. 我不知该咋办。

     b. all 都,指三者以上。all 的主谓一致:all的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定。例如:

    All goes well.  一切进展得很好。

     all 通常不与可数名词单数连用,如:不说 all the book,而说 the whole book。

     但all可与表时间的可数名词单数连用,如 all day,all night,all the year;但习惯上不说 all hour,all century。

     all还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用,如 all China,all the city,all my life,all the way

 3)both 都,指两者。

     a. both 与复数动词连用,但 both… and…可与单数名词连用。

     b. both, all 都可作同位语,其位置在行为动词前, be 动词之后。如果助动词或情态动词后面的实义动词省 去,则位于助动词或情态动词之前。例如:

Who can speak Japanese? 谁能讲日本话? 

We both(all)can.       我们都不会。

 4)neither 两者都不

     a. neither作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

     b.  作定语与单数名词连用,但neither… nor 用作并列连词,可与复数名词连用。其谓语采用就近原则。

c. 可用于下列句型,避免重复。例如:

She can't sing,neither(can)he. 她不会唱歌,他也不会。

 5)neither 与nor 的比较

     a. 如前句是否定式从句,则主句用neither,而不用 nor。例如:

       If you don't do it,neither should I. 如果你不干,我也不干。

     b.  如后连续有几个否定句式,则用nor,不用neither。例如:

       He can't sing,nor dance,nor skate. 他不会唱歌,不会跳舞,也不会滑冰。

 

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3.13 none, few, some, any, one, ones

一、 none 无

  1) none作主语,多与of 构成短语 none of。 在答语中,none可单独使用。例如:      

Are there any pictures on the wall? 墙上有画吗?

None. 没。

  2) none作主语,谓语动词单复数均可。但如做表语,则其单复数与表语一致。例如:

    It is none of your business. 闲事莫管。

二、few 一些,少数

  few 作主语时,谓语动词用复数,多用于肯定句。

三、some 一些

  1) 可与复数名词及不可数名词连用。

  2) 当做"某一"解时,也可与单数名词连用。(= a certain)

    You will be sorry for this some day. 总有一天,你会为此后悔的。

    A certain (some) person has seen you break the rule. 有些人不同意你的看法。

  注意:

  (1)在肯定疑问句中用some代替any。

  (2)some用于其他句式中:

    a.肯定疑问句中:说话人认为对方的答案会是肯定的,或期望得到肯定回答时。

    Would you like句式中,表委婉请求或建议。例如:

    Would you like some coffee?  喝咖啡吗?

    b.在条件状语从句中表示确定的意义时。例如:

    If you need some help,let me know. 需要帮助,跟我说。

    c.some位于主语部分。例如:

    Some students haven't been there before. 有些学生没去过那儿。

    d.当否定的是整体中的部分时,some可用于否定句。例如:

    I haven't heard from some of my old friends these years. 这些年我没有收到一些老朋友的信。

四、any 一些

  1) any 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。

     当句中含有任何的意思时,any可用于肯定句。

    Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。

五、one, 复数形式为ones

  ones必须和形容词连用。如果替代的名词时无形容词在前,则用some, any,而不用ones。例如:

Have you bought any rulers? 买尺了吗?

Yes, I 've bought some. 买了,买了几把。

 

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3.14 one,that 和it

   one表示泛指,that和it 表示特指。that与所指名词为同类,但不是同一个,而it 与所指名词为同一个。例如:

   I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one.(不定)我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。

  The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought.(同类但不同个)你买的那顶帽子比我买的大。

  I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it.( 同一物)我找不到我的帽子。我不知道我把它放在哪了。

 

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3.15 one/another/the other

  one… the other 只有两个        

 some… the others  有三个以上

 one… another,another…

 some… others,others…

 others = other people/things

 the others = the rest 剩余的全部

 1) 泛指另一个用another。

 2) 一定范围内两人(物),一个用one,另一个用the other。

 3) 一定范围内三者,一个用one,另一个用one (another),第三个可用the other,a third。

 4) 一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用the others。

 5) 泛指别的人或物时,用others当在一定范围内,除去一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部时,也用others。

 

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3.16 “the”的妙用

   He is one of the students who help me.

  He is the one of the students who helps me. 他是帮我的学生之一。

  第一句定语从句与the students 一致。

  第二句定语从句与the one 一致。

 

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3.17 anyone/any one;no one/none;every/each 

1.anyone 和 any one

  anyone仅指人,any one既可指人,也可指物。

2.no one 和none

 a) none 后跟of短语,既可指人又可指物,而no one只单独使用,只指人。

 b) none 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而no one作主语谓语动词只能是单数。例如:

    None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。

     ---- Did any one call me up just now? --刚才有人打电话给我吗?

     ---- No one.            --没有。

3.every 和each

1) every 强调全体的概念, each强调个体概念。例如:

    Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。

    Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。

2) every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)。

3) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。each可作代词或形容词。例如:

    Every boy has to take one. 每个男孩必须取一个。

    Each boy has to take one.

    Each of the boys has to take one.

4) every不可以作状语,each可作状语。

5) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks等; each没有。

6) every 与not 连用,表示部分否定; each 和not连用表示全部否定。例如:

   Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。

   Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。

 

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3.18 both, either, neither, all, any, none

  这些词都可用作代词或形容词。其位置都在be 动词之后,行为动词之前或第一个助动词之后。

 1) both (两者都),either(两者中任何一个),neither (两者都不)。以上词使用范围为两个人或物。例如:

  Neither of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都不聪明。

 2) both,either

   both与复数连用,either与单数连用。例如:

   Both the boys are clever.  两个男孩都很聪明。

   Either of the two boys is clever.

   There are flowers on both sides of the street. 路边长满了野花。

   There are flowers on either side of the street.

 3) all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个), none (都不)。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。例如:

   All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。

   I don't like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

   I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

 注意:all与none用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动词;跟复数名词,用复数动词。例如:

    All of the students are there. 所有的学生都在那。

    All (of) the milk is there.   所有的牛奶都在那。

 

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3.19 many, much 

    Many,much都意为"许多", many + 可数名词,much + 不可数名词。例如:

   How many people are there at the meeting? 多少人出席了会议。

   How much time has we left? 还剩多少时间?

   Many of the workers were at the meeting.许多工人在开会。

   Much of the time was spent on learning.学习上化了许多时间。

 

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3.20 few, little, a few, a little

  (a) few + 可数名词, (a) little + 不可数名词

 a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点

 few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。例如:

 He has a few friends.   他有几个朋友。

 He has few friends.    他几乎没有朋友。

 We still have a little time.   我们还有点时间。

 There is little time left.    几乎没剩下什么时间了。

固定搭配:only a few (=few)  not a few (=many)  quite a few (=many)  many a (=many)。例如:

  Many books were sold.

Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。

典型例题:

  Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes.

  A. little  B. few C. a little  D. a few

  答案: A. spend所指的是钱,不可数,只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含义,因此应用little表示几乎不。

 

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3.21 代词练习

1.There are several pretty girls standing under the tree, but ______ are known to me.

a.       neither   b. none   c. no one   d. all

2.In one year rats eat 40 to 50 times ______ weight.

a.       its   b. and   c. their   d. theirs

3.You’d better continue to use the same spelling of your name as ______ you used in your application.

a.        one   b. the one   c. any   d. some one

4.The little baby was left alone, with ______ to look after it.

a.        someone   b. anyone   c. not one   d. no one

5.John can play chess better than ______ else.

a.        the one   b. no one   c. any one   d. another

6.The weight of something is another way of describing the amount of force exerted on ______ by gravity.

a.        it   b. them   c. that   d. one

7.It is one thing to enjoy listening to good music, but it is quite ______ to perform skillfully yourself.

a.        other   b. another   c. some   d. any

8.Children should be taught how to get along with ______.

a.        another   b. other   c. others   d. any other

9.The poor man lived on wild berries and roots because they had ______ to eat.

a.        nothing else   b. anything else   c. something other   d. nothing other

10.I go to the cinema ______ day, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.

a.        each other   b. every other   c. this and the other   d. all other

11.One of the properties of light is ______ traveling in wave form as it goes from one place to another.

a.        it   b. it’s   c. its    d. their

12.______ in the world has been asked to do his duty for the human society.

a.        Each of the tramps   b. Every of the tramps   c. The each tramp   d. The every tramp

13.In some restaurants, food and service are worse than ______ used to be.

a.        they   b. it   c. them   d. that

14.Let the porter take all the baggage out and put ______ in the lobby.

a.        it   b. they   c. them  d. its

15.Everyone who comes to the party is given a wooden apple with _____ own names cut in it as a souvenir.

a.        his   b. her   c. their   d. our

16.Everybody in the class must give in ______ exercise book within the given time.

a.        their   b. our   c. his   d. her

17.During the journey, the boys and girls entertained ______ with songs and games.

a.        themselves   b. theirselves   c. himself   d. itself

18.You’d better buy ______ some fruits when you go on a trip.

a.        youself   b. myself   c. yourself   d. you

19.The boys in this town like to bully ______.

a.        one another   b. one and other   c. each other    d. one and the other

20.One common family name is Black,______ is Anderson.

a. another   b. the other   c. others   d. none other

21.I have two novels: one of the two is “Gone with the Wind’, and ______ is “the Tale of Two Cities’.

a. another   b. other   c. none other   d. the other

22.All girls wear beautiful clothes. Some are dressed in red;______ in green.

a. other   b. another   c. others   d. none other

23.She can’t seem to help herself. And ______ can help her, either.

a. none else   b. no one else   c. not any   d. somebody else

24.Children can usually dress ______ by the age of five.

a.        him   b. them   c. hiself   d. themselves

25.The gold watch had belonged to me for years, but the police refused to believe it was ______.

a. me   b. my   c. mine   d. I’s

26.Mother would not let Mary and ______ attend the hockey game.

a. I   b. my   c. me   d. we

27.In a news conference this afternoon, the university announced that ______ intends to make several important changes in next year’s budget.

a. he   b. it   c. she   d. they

28.______ but a fool can make such a mistake.

a. Everyone   b. No other   c. Not all   d. None

29.The poem by Browning is so observed that I cannot grasp ______ meaning.

a. its   b. it’s    c. their   d. that

30.The mayor felt that the police, in spite of the reports, had done ______ best.

a. its   b. their   c. his   d. our

31.I haven’t read ______ of the last four chapters, so I know little about them.

a. anything   b. any   c. some   d. something

32.A pretty face may win friends but it takes character and personality to hold ______.

a.        it   b. them   c. that   d. one

33.In the discussion, one speaker held that, since we live in a money-oriented society, the average individual cares little about solving ______.

a.        anyone else’s problems   b. anyone’s else problems

b.        anyone else problems    d. problems of anyone else

34.I don’t know whether small oranges are sweeter than big ______.

a. those   b. ones   c. one   d. that

35.How much water is left in the bottle?’ ‘______’

a. Nothing   b. None   c. Not some   d. Not one

36.It took two of them to do the work that ______ of us could do.

a. someone   b. anyone   c. any one   d. everyone

37.He has five children, and ______ of them is good at painting.

a. everyone   b. everybody   d. every one   d. every

38.I have three brothers,______ are in Beijing.

a. no one of them   b. neither of them   c. some of them   d. none of them

39.Some of my students study a lot,______ just don’t care.

a. anothers   b. the other   c. some other   d. others

40.As a matter of fact, Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves are second only to ______.

a. Kuweit   b. that of Kuweit   c. Kuweits’s    d. those of Kuweit

41.This book of _______ used to be one of the best sellers in the shop.

a. his   b. him   c. that man   d. this

42.We should always keep ______ well-informed of the changing information.

a. us    b. ours    c. ourselves    d. we

43.The climate here is often said to be similar to ______.

a. Japan   b. one of Japan   c. that of Japan   d. in Japan

44.Hunted by constant fear of arrest, the thief ______ to the police at last.

a.        gave it up   b. gave up himself   c. gave him up   d. gave himself up

45.______ of the boys in the class who have passed the test is to receive certificates.

a. Every   b. Every one   c. Any   d. Anyone

46.Do you believe that she has blamed us for the accident, especially ______?

a. you and me   b. you and I    c. I and you    d. me and you

47.Of those who graduated with ______,Ellen is the only one who has found a good job.

a. Betty and he   b. he and Betty   c. Betty and him   d. Him and Betty

48.He is surprised by ______ having to pay for the accident.

a. you   b. yours   c. your    d. your’s

49.This is a left hand glove and that is ______.

a. other   b. the other one   c. other one   d. another

50.Add those examples to ______ you have already noted.

a. one   b. the one   c. one   d. the ones

51.Have you got a ticket?  Yes, I’ve got ______.

a. it    b. the one   c. one   d. the ones

52.There’s the doorbell; I hope ______ Tom.

a. its   b. it’s   c. is    d. he’s

53.It’s cheaper to buy old furniture than to have new ______ made.

a. one   b. ones   c. furniture   d. furnitures

54.Those of us who are over fifty years old should get ______ blood pressure checked regularly.

a. their   b. their’s   c. our   d. ours

55.Every man and woman eighteen years of age or older is eligible to vote for the candidate of ______.

a. his choice   b. their choice    c. the choice of him   d. the choice of theirs

56.I bite my nails. I must break ______.

a. the habit of me   b. the habit with myself   c. myself of the habit   d. of the habit myself

57.______ of them shared my opinions, so we have ______ in common to discuss.

a. Nobody/a little   b. Few/little   c. A few/little   d. None/many

58.When science, business and art learn something of ______ methods and goals, the world will have come closer to cultural harmony.

a. one and the other’s   b. each and the other’s 

   c. one another’s       d. the one’s and the other’s

59.The boy is ______ of a musician.

a.        anyone   b. anything   c. someone   d. something

60.For ______ interested in nature, the club offers hikes and overnight camping each week during the summer.

a. them   b. whom   c. themselves   d. those

61.The use of radar as well as the two-way radio ______ for the police to intercept most speeders.

a. make it possible   b. makes it possible  c. makes possible   d. make it a possibility

62.The family never agree about ______ shares of the property.

a. her   b. its   c. their   d. his

63.The flock of geese was flying through the sky in perfect formation following ______ leader.

a. its   b. their    c. his   d. her

64.When Jonathan went to Spain with his sister, he bought a leather coat for her and another for ______.

a. him   b. himself   c. he   d. his

65.Those of us who wear glasses should have ______ eyes examined at regular intervals.

a. their  b. our   c. his   d. her

66.Frank admired his friends Tom and David. He imitated ______.

 a. theirs every action   b. every action of theirs  c. every of their action  d. every action of their one

67.My desk is ______.

a.        between his   b. between his one   c. beside his one   d. beside his

68.May I speak to Iris?”

This is ______ speaking.”

a. she   b. hers’s   c. hers   d. her

69.Mary is the landlady ______.

a.        from who we rent the flat     b. from whom we rent the flat

b.        whom we rent the flat        d. who we rent the flat

70.Give the message to ______ is at the table.

a. whomever   b. whosever   c. whatever   d. whoever

71.It was through experimentation ______ people found out he behavior of electricity.

a.        that   b. which   c. /   d. the

72.______ Nat Turner who led a revolt against slavery in Virginia in 1831.

a. Where was   b. It was   c. He was   d. it was him

73.It wasn’t ______ telephoned me.

a. he whom    b. him whom   c. he who    d . his who

74.It was ______ he bought the magazine.

a.        from a second-hand store where     b. a second-hand store in which

b.        in a second-hand store that         d. in a second-hand store where

75.It was ______ late in the evening that the students returned to the dormitories.

a. till    b. before   c. when    d. not until

76.It was ______ that he did not go to Mount Lao with us.

a.        because he was ill      b. as he was ill

b.        since he was ill        d. though he was ill

77.It was ______ that he joined the evening party.

a. finding Comrade Li    b. found Comrade Li   c. to find Comrade Li  d. find Comrade Li

78.Was it ______ she agreed to help?

a.        very reluctantly so that     b. very reluctantly that

b.        so reluctantly that         d. very reluctantly when

79.______ she gave the postcards to?

a. Whom it was that   b. Who it was that   c. Who was it that   d. It was who that

80.______ the camel can go for three days without food or drink?

a. That it is why  b. That is it why   c. Why it is that    d. Why is it that  

 

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4. 形容词和副词

4.1 形容词及其用法

  形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot。

2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。

   (错) He is an ill man.

   (对) The man is ill.

   (错) She is an afraid girl.

   (对) The girl is afraid.

   这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后。例如:something nice.

  

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4.2 以-ly结尾的形容词

1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

     改错: (错) She sang lovely.

          (错) He spoke to me very friendly.

          (对) Her singing was lovely.

          (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词,如daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early等。例如:

   The Times is a weekly paper. 《时代周刊》为周刊。

   The Times is published weekly. 《时代周刊》每周发行一期。

 

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4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体

1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接,如the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry等。例如:

    The poor are losing hope. 穷人行将失去希望。

2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如the British,the English,the French,the Chinese等。例如:

    The English have wonderful sense of humor. 英国人颇有幽默感。

 

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4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

   多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色)--出处--材料性质--类别--名词。例如:

   a small round table/ a tall gray building/ a dirty old brown shirt/ a famous German medical school/ an expensive Japanese sports car

典型例题:

1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. 

       A. little two other B. two little other  C. two other little  D. little other two

    答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的顺序可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.

      A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old

    答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?

       ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.

     A. few last sunny  B. last few sunny  C. last sunny few  D. few sunny last

答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照:限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词,如those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。

 

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4.5 副词及其基本用法

    副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。

一、副词的位置

1) 在动词之前。

2) 在be动词、助动词之后。 

3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

注意:

  a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。例如:

   We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.我们清楚地看到前面有奇怪的光。

  b. 方式副词well,badly,hard等只放在句尾。例如:

   He speaks English well. 他英语说得好。

二、副词的排列顺序:

1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。例如:

    Please write slowly and carefully. 请写得慢一些,仔细一些

3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。

     改错:(错) I very like English.

       (对) I like English very much.

注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。例如:

        I don't know him well enough. 他我不熟悉。

        There is enough food for everyone to eat.有足够的食物供每个人吃。

        There is food enough for everyone to eat.

 

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4.6 兼有两种形式的副词

  1) close与closely

     close意思是"近";closely 意思是"仔细地"。例如:

    He is sitting close to me. 他就坐在我边上。

    Watch him closely. 盯着他。

2) late 与lately

    late意思是"晚";lately 意思是"最近"。例如:

    You have come too late. 你来得太晚了。

    What have you been doing lately? 近来好吗?

3) deep与deeply

    deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。例如:

    He pushed the stick deep into the mud.他把棍子深深插进泥里。

    Even father was deeply moved by the film.老爸也被电影深深打动了。

4) high与highly

    high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much。例如:

    The plane was flying high. 这架飞机飞得很高。

    I think highly of your opinion. 你的看法很有道理。

5) wide与widely

    wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。例如:

    He opened the door wide. 他把门开得大大的。

    English is widely used in the world.英语在世界范围内广泛使用。

6) free与freely

    free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"。例如:

    You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.无论什么时候,我这饭铺免费对你开放。

    You may speak freely; say what you like.你可以畅所欲言,想说什么就说什么。

 

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4.7 形容词与副词的比较级 

   大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。

1) 规则变化

  单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。

构成法

原级

比较级

最高级

一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est

tall

taller

tallest

以不发音的e结尾的单音词和少数以- le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st

nice

nicer

nicest

以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est

big

bigger

biggest

"以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词,改y为i,再加-er,-est   

busy

busier

busiest

少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est

clever/narrow

cleverer/ narrower

cleverest/ narrowest

其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more,most来构成比较级和最高级

important/ easily

more important/ more easily

most important/ most easily

 

2) 不规则变化

原级

比较级

最高级

good

better

best

well(健康的)

worse

worst

bad

ill(有病的)

old

older/elder

oldest/eldest

much/many

more

most

little

less

least

far

farther/further

farthest/furthest

 

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4.8. as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。例如:

   He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。例如:

   This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。

   I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。

3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如:

   This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。

   Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。

4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the … + of。例如:

   This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。

   This bridge is three times the length of that one.

   Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。

   Your room is twice the size of mine.

 

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4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than 。例如:

    You are taller than I. 你比我高。

    They lights in your room are brighter than those in mine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的亮。

注意:

1)要避免重复使用比较级。

   (错) He is more cleverer than his brother.

   (对) He is more clever than his brother.

   (对) He is clever than his brother.

2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。

   (错) China is larger than any country in Asia.

   (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。

    The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.

    It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。

    比较:Which is larger, Canada or Australia?

       Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?

       She is taller than her two sisters.

       She is the taller of the two sisters.

 

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4.10 可修饰比较级的词

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。

2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

典型例题:

1)---- Are you feeling ____? 

   ---- Yes,I'm fine now.

   A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better  

答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.

2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. 

   A. more  B. much more   C. much    D. more much

答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。

3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. 

A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time

答案:D。

 

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4.11 many, old 和 far

1) 如果后接名词时,much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。   

2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。例如:

   My elder brother is an engineer. 我哥哥是个工程师。

   Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 玛丽是三姐妹中最大的。

3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further。一般father 表示距离,further表示进一步。例如:

     I have nothing further to say. 我没什么要说了。

 

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4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围

1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。例如:

The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。

形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。例如:

   It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。

   注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

    (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

    (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost。例如:

   This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 这帽子差不多是最大的了。

注意:

     a. very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。

    This is the very best.

    This is much the best.

     b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。例如:

     Africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲。

3) 最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。例如:

    Mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。

    Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如:

    Nothing is so easy as this. 没比这更简单的了。

    =Nothing is easier than this.

    =This is the easiest thing.

 

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4.13 和more有关的词组,

1) the more…the more… 越……就越……。例如:

     The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 越努力,进步越大。

2) more B than A=less A than B    与其说A不如说B。例如:

     He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时,与其说是反应慢不如说是懒。

3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多。例如:

     The officials could see no more than the Emperor. 官员们看到的和皇帝一样多。

    no less… than… 与……一样……。例如:

    He is no less diligent than you. 他和你一样勤勉。

4) more than 不只是,非常。例如:

   She is more than kind to us all. 她对我们非常热心。

典型例题

1)The weather in China is different from____.

 A. in America  B. one in America  C. America

 D. that in America

答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的one常用来代替可数名词,而that可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。

2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.

A. as twice many  B. as many twice  C. twice as many D. twice many as

 答案C. 此句意为"这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为C。

 

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4.14 形容词和副词练习

1.  The modern machine proved ______ in heart surgery.

a. high valuable    b. highly valuable    c. valuable high    d. valuable highly

2.  Mr. Johnson and his ______ daughter do not always understand each other.

a. older    b. the oldest    c. eldest    d. the eldest

3.  They ______ thought that the truth would be finally discovered.

a. little    b. not    c. small    d. bit

4.  They hardly believe that the apartment which costs them $ 4,000 is ______.

a. so small    b. such little    c. so little    d. such small

5.  If a claim is kept ______, it is more likely to be recognized.

a. live    b. lived    c. alive     d. living

6.  On his way to school he met ______, so he sent him to hospital.

a. very ill man    b. much sick man    c. serious ill man    d. very sick man

7.  She was operated a month ago but now she was ______.

a. very good    b. very well    c. healthy    d. good conditioned

8.  What I would do is to go ______.

a. really quietly somewhere    b. somewhere quietly really

c. really quiet somewhere     d. somewhere really quiet

9.  The chairman asked ______ to write their questions on a piece of paper and send them to the front.

a. the present members    b. the members presently   

c. the members present    d. the presently members

10.     The price was very reasonable; I would gladly have paid ______ he asked.

a. three times much as    b. three times as many as 

c. as three times much as  d. three times as much as

11.     The trousers are ______, but Tom does not care a bit.

a. too a little small    b. a little too small    c. a too little small    d. a small too little

12.     She wore a dress to the party that was far more attractive than ______.

a. other girls    b. that of other girls    c. the other girls    d. those of other girls

13.     he can play tennis better than ______ in the class.

a. any boys    b. any other boy    c. any boy    d. any other

14.     Kasia is taking her ______ tour of the shops in search of bargains.

a. daily    b. day    c. day time    d. night

15.     ______ the child expresses his interest in an activity, the stronger it will become.

a. The more frequent    b. The frequenter    c. The more frequently    d. the frequentlier

16.     We’d better wait _______ , Peter and Tom will come very soon.

a. a little longer    b. more longer    c. long    d. as longer

17.     although the medicine tastes ______, it seems to help my condition.

a. bad    b. badly    c. too much bad    d. too badly

18.     When she got her first month salary, Diana bought herself ______ dress.

a. a cotton , blue …expensive    b. an expensive … blue, cotton

  c. a blue, expensive … cotton    d. a cotton, expensive… blue

19.     The doctors have tried ______ to save the life of the wounded soldier.

a. everything possible humanly    b. humanly everything possible

c. everything humanly possible    d. humanly possible everything

20.     I was worried very much because I’ll miss my flight if the bus arrives ______.

a. lately    b. late    c. latter    d. more later

21.     The noise outside was ______ his speech was hardly audible.

a. too irritating that    b. so irritating so    c. so irritating that    d. so irritating enough that

22.     The harder the shrub is to grow, ______.

a. the more higher price it         b. the higher price it is

c. the higher the price is           d. the higher is the price

23.     The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are ______ taken from the earth.

a. clearest than those       b. clearer than that   

c. much clear than those    d. much clearer than those

24.     ______ anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself.

a. Three-minute call    b. A three-minutes call

c. A three-minute call   d. A three-minutes-call

25.     We arrived ______ Professor Baker had already called the roll.

a. so lately that    b. as late that    c. so later that     d. so late that

26.     It is ______ that I would like to go to the beach.

a. so nice weather    b. such nice weather    c. so nice a weather    d. such a nice weather

27.     Her little car isn’t ______ to seat more than two people comfortably.

a. big enough    b. enough big    c. so big enough     d. big as enough

28.     His score on the exam was ______ to qualify him for a graduate program.

a. too good    b. well enough    c. as high as    d. good enough

29.     The plane is scheduled to arrive ______ because of bad weather.

a. lately    b. late    c. later    d. latest

30.     There are ______ that I can’t finish them.

a. so long assignments    b. such long assignments

  c. long assignments       d. so very long assignments

31.     Bats find their way by squeaking ______ and guiding themselves by echoes.

a. very fast    b. very fastly    c. much faster    d. most fastly

32.     Your application will be considered ______ your file is completed.

a. as quickly as    b. as soon as    c. as fast as    d. as early as

33.     This dress is prettier, but it costs ______ that one.

a. twice more than    b. twice as much as    c. as much twice as    d. twice so much as

34.     A new shopping center on the north side will have ______.

a. five hundred more than shops    b. as more than five hundred shops

c. five hundred shops more than    d. more than five hundred shops

35.     The more you study during the semester, ______ you have to study the week before exams.

a. the less    b. the lesser    c. less    d. the little

36.     To answer accurately is more important than ______.

a. a quick finish    b. to finish quickly    c. finishing quickly    d. you finish quickly

37.     When a body enters the earth’s atmosphere, it travels ______.

a. in a rapid manner    b. fastly    c. with great speed    d. very rapidly

38.     The salary of a taxi driver is much higher _______.

a. in comparison with the salary of a teacher      b. than a teacher

c. than that of a teacher                       d. to compare as a teacher

39.     Frost occurs in valleys and on low grounds ______ on adjacent hills.

a. more frequently as    b. as frequently than

c. more frequently than  d. frequently than

40.     She can speak _______ in front of Mack, but she can’t eat ______ in his restaurant.

a. free, free    b. free, freely    c. freely, free    d. freely, freely

41.     You will have to practice ______ times before you can do it.

a. may more    b. more several    c. more often    d. more many

42.     I have been going to Shanghai ______ than I used to.

a. lesser    b. less    c. fewer    d. less often

43.     Tuition at American university runs ______ one thousand dollars a semester.

a. so high as    b. as high to    c. as high as    d. as higher than

44.     I enjoy the concert last night; they played ______ beautiful music.

a. such    b. such a     c. so    d. so a

45.     Several day ______, I saw the man again on the street.

a. late    b. later     c. latter     d. last

46.     When electricity was first invented, people refused to believe such a thing ______.

a. impossible    b. possibly    c. possible    d. impossibly

47.     The reason why so many people sit before the television tonight is that there will be a ______ show.

a. living    b. live    c. alive    d. lived

48.     When the three boys met one another, they found they looked very much ______. Then they knew they were triplet.

a. like    b. alike     c. likely    d. liked

49.     The doctor assured the patient that there was ______ with her, but she could not help worrying.

a. seriously wrong nothing    b. nothing serious wrong 

c. nothing seriously wrong    d. serious nothing wrong

50.     If you live in Wuhan one day and in Shenyang the next, you ______ the change in temperature.

a. are certainly to feel    b. certainly feel    c. are to feel certainly    d. are certain to feel

51.     As a safety precaution, all drivers carry only enough money to make change for ______.

a. a bill of ten-dollar    b. a ten-dollars bill

c. a ten-dollar bill      d. a tens-dollar bill

52.     When I spent holidays Europe, I bought _____ vases.

a. two lovely big old German      b. two lovely old big German

c. two German big old lovely      d. lovely big two old German

53.     Everyone will agree that food in the south is as good as ______ in the country.

a. other region    b. any other region    c. that of any region    d. that of any other region

54.     Stars are so far away that they are ______ spots of light when seen from the earth.

a. nothing more as    b. anything more than

c. more than         d. nothing more than

55.     What deeply impressed his was that magnificent ______.

a. eight-century-old    b. eight-centuries    c. old-eight-centuries   d. eight-century’s-old

56.     _______ focus on cultural differences between Chinese and Western societies.

a. The below text and dialogues      b. Below the text and dialogues

c. The text and dialogues below      d. Text and dialogues the below

57.     People will be able to fly from one planet to another in ______.

a. little nasty arrow-shaped tubes      b. nasty little arrow-shaped tubes

c. arrow-shaped little nasty tubes      d. arrow-shaped little nasty tubes

58.     Beginning in the late 19th century, the _______ rise in the productivity of England was just ______ less than Germany and the U.S.

a. year…slightly    b. yearly…slight    c. yearly…slightly     d. year…slightly

59.     In Spain, officials estimate that ______ 75 percent of the current violent crime is drug related.

a. much as    b. as much as    c. as many as    d. as great

60.     You should spend ______ in the study of the various senses and uses of the common words.

a. much time as you can    b. as time much as you can

  c. time as many as you can  d. as much time as you can

61.     Professor Chen asked us to write ______ essay on individual differences in second language learning.

a. a no more than two-thousand-word      b. a less two-thousand-words

c. a less than two-thousands-words        d. a no more two than thousand word

62.     Her voice is ______.

a. loud    b. aloud     c. loudly    d. loudness

63.     That so many advances have been made in ______ is the most valid argument for retaining the research unit.

a. such short time    b. so a short time    c. such a short time    d. such short a time

64.     ______ curriculum includes all experiences which the students may have within the environment of the school.

a. Broad speaking    b. Speaking broadly   c. Broadly speaking    d. Broadly

65.     Since taxi fare in the city may run ______ twenty dollars, I suggest that you take a bus.

a. as high as    b. as expensive as    c. so high that    d. so expensive as

66.     If negotiations for the new trade agreements take ______, critical food shortages will develop in several countries.

a. too much longer    b. much too long    c. the longest    d. the longer

67.     If he had followed the directions carefully in taking the medicine, he would have felt better ______.

a. much quicker   b. more quick    c. much quickly    d. more quickly

68.     Since he spent his childhood in France, Jack is able to converse in French ______.

a. rather good    b. quite better    c. fairly more    d. rather well

69.     Of the two cars that the Smiths have, the Plymouth is, without any question, ______.

a. the cheapest to run    b. the cheaper to run    c. cheaper    d. more cheaper

70.     With ______ three inches of rain falling in a six-month period, the farmers found it necessary to irrigate the land

a. less than    b. little than    c. fewer than    d. less few than

71. On a small marble table in the center of her boudoir stands ______ vase.

a. a little exquisite antique brown Chinese porcelain

b. an exquisite little antique brown Chinese porcelain

c. an antique little exquisite brown Chinese porcelain

d. a Chinese antique little expensive brown porcelain

72.   When is Tom going to leave?”

  “He is going to leave ______ this week.”

a. sometimes    b. some time    c. sometime    d. somewhat

73.   The librarian insists that Dana take ______ books from library before she returns the dictionary she borrowed last month.

  a. no    b. many    c. not many    d. no more

74.   The facilities of the older hospital are ______ the new hospital.

  a. as good or better than      b. as good as or better as

  c. as good as or better than    d. as good as or better than those of

75.   ______ iron has relatively few economical uses.

a. Chemical pure    b. Chemically pure     c. Pure chemical    d. Purely chemical

76.   I walked 8 miles today. I never guessed that I could walk ______ far.

a. much    b. that    c. such    d. as

77.   They _____ to our proposal.

  a. have not still responded    b. have not responded still

  c. have still not responded    d. still have not responded

78.   True hibernation takes place only among ______ animals.

a. whose blood is warm      b. blood worm

c. warm-blooded           d. they have warm blood

79.   He works ______.

  a. lone    b. lonely  c. alone   d. lonesome

80.   A _____ road goes ______ from our college to the center.

  a. straight…straight    b. straightly…straightly   c. straight…straightly   d. straightly…straight

 

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5. 动词

1) 表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。

2) 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词、系动词、助动词、情态动词。

说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词。例如:

    We are having a meeting.  我们正在开会。(have是实义动词。)

    He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。(have是助动词。)

3) 动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词、不及物动词,英语缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。

说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如:

     She can dance and sing. 她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物动词。)

     She can sing many English songs. 她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物动词。)

 4) 动词根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词、非限定动词例如:

     She sings very well. 她唱得很好。(sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。)

     She wants to learn English well. 她想学好英语。(to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。)

     说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式、动名词、分词。

5) 根据动词的组成形式,可分为三类,分别是:单字词、短语动词、动词短语例如:

     The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases. 英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。(contains是单字动词。)

     Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries. 学生们学会查字典。(look up是短语动词。)

     The young ought to take care of the old. 年轻人应照料老人。(take care of是动词短语。)

6) 动词有五种形态,分别是:原形、第三人称单数形式、过去式、过去分词、现在分词。

 

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5.1 系动词

   系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。说明:有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语。例如:

   He fell ill yesterday.  他昨天病了。(fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。)

   He fell off the ladder.  他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。

1)状态系动词

用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。例如:

He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

2)持续系动词

用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand。例如:

He always kept silent at meeting.  他开会时总保持沉默。

This matter rests a mystery.  此事仍是一个谜。

3)表像系动词

用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。例如:

He looks tired.  他看起来很累。

He seems (to be) very sad.  他看起来很伤心。

4)感官系动词

感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste。 例如:

     This kind of cloth feels very soft.  这种布手感很软。

     This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 

5)变化系动词

这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。例如:

    He became mad after that.  自那之后,他疯了。

    She grew rich within a short time.  她没多长时间就富了。

6)终止系动词

表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意。例如:

    The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。

    The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。

    His plan turned out a success.  他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

 

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5.2 助动词

1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词的词叫助动词。被协助的动词称作主要动词。助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用。例如:

    He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。

doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:

     a. 表示时态。例如:

   He is singing. 他在唱歌。

   He has got married. 他已结婚。

     b. 表示语态。例如:

   He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。

     c. 构成疑问句。例如:

   Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

   Did you study English before you came here?  你来这儿之前学过英语吗?

     d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句。例如:

   I don't like him.  我不喜欢他。

     e. 加强语气。例如:

   Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

   He did know that.  他的确知道那件事。

3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would等。

 

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5.3 助动词be的用法

1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态。例如:

They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。

English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态。例如:

The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。

English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:

     a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如:

    He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。

    We are to teach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。

    说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。

     b. 表示命令。例如:

    You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。

    He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。

     c. 征求意见。例如:

    How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?

    Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?

     d. 表示相约、商定。例如:

    We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。

  

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5.4 助动词have的用法

1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态。例如:

     He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。

     By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.  上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。

  2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时。例如:

      I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。

   3)have +been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态。例如:

      English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。

 

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5.5 助动词do 的用法

1)构成一般疑问句。例如:

    Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?

    Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?

2)do + not 构成否定句。例如:

    I do not want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。

    He doesn't like to study.  他不想学习。

    In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 

过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

3) 构成否定祈使句。例如:

    Don't go there. 不要去那里。

    Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。

说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。

4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气。例如:

    Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。

    I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。

    I do miss you. 我确实想你。

5)用于倒装句。例如:

    Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。

    Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进了大学以后,我们才认识到英语的重要性。

说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

6)用作代动词。例如:

    ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?

    ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)

    He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧?

 

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5.6 助动词shall和will的用法

   shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如:

   I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。

   He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。

说明:在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:

   He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)

   He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)

 

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5.7 助动词should, would的用法

1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称。例如:

    I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。

    比较:"What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。

    可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。

2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称。例如:

    He said he would come.  他说他要来。

比较:"I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"变成间接引语,就成了He said he would come。原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。

 

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5.8 短语动词

  动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词。例如:

  Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)

  短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:

1)动词+副词,如:black out;

2)动词+介词,如:look into;

3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词。

 

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5.9 非谓语动词

  在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。

1)不定式

时态\语态

主动

被动

一般式

to do

to be done

完成式

to have done

to have been done

 

2)动名词

时态\语态

主动

被动

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

 

3)分词

时态\语态

主动

被动

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

 

否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词

 

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5.10 助动词练习

1.If it is fine tomorrow, we ______ a football match.

a. have    b. will have    c. has     d. shall has

2.When he was at school, he ______ early and take a walk before breakfast.

a. will rise   b. shall rise   b. should rise    would rise

3.In the past 30 years China ______ great advances in the socialist revolution and socialist construction.

a. has made   b. have made   c. had made   d. having made

4.I ______ go to bed until I ______ finished my work.

a. don’t/had   b. didn’t/have    c. didn’t/had    d. don’t/have

5.______ you think he ______ back by dinner time?

a. Do/have come   b. Did/will have come    c. Does/will come    d. Do/will have come

6.He said that he dropped his bag when he ______ for the bus.

a. was runing   b. was running   c. were running   d. is running

7.No sooner ______ he arrived home than he ______ to start on another journey.

a. has/was asked   b. have/were asked   c. had/is asked   d. had/was asked

8.______ you give me a room for the night?” I asked on arriving at the hotel.

a. Should   b. Can   c. Might   d. May

9.There are nine of them, so ______ get into the car at the same time.

a. they may not at all  b. all they may not   c. they can’t all  d. all they can’t

10.We didn’t see him at the lecture yesterday.” “He ______ it.”

a. mustn’t attend            b. cannot have attended

c. would have not attended   d. needn’t have attended

11.You realize that you were driving at 100 mph, don’t you?”

No, officer. I ______. This car can’t do more than 80.”

a. didn’t need to be   b. may not have been   c. couldn’t have been  d. needn’t have been

12.he was a good runner so he ______ escape from the police.

a. might   b. succeeded to   c. would    d. was able to

13.If they ______, our plan will fall flat.

a. are co-operating  b. had not co-operated  c. won’t co-operate  d. didn’t co-operate

14.I hoped ______ my letter.

a. her to answer  b. that she would answer  c. that she answers   d. her answering

15.He ______ live in the country than in the city.

a. prefers  b. likes to   c. had better    d. would rather

16.______ to see a film with us today?

a. Did you like   b. Would you like   c. Will you like   d. Have you liked

17.I’m sorry, but I had no alternative. I simply ______ what I did.

a. must do   b. had to do   c. ought to have done    d. have to do

18.Time is running out,______?”

a.       hadn’t we better got start    b. hadn’t we better get start

b.      hadn’t we better get started  d. hadn’t we better not started

19.No one ______ that to his face.

a. dares say   b. dares saying    c. dare say    d. dare to say

20.The students in the classroom ______ not to make so much noise.

a. need   b. ought    c. must    d. dare

21.You ______ last week if you were really serious about your work.

a. ought to come   b. ought to be coming   c. ought have come    d. ought to have come

22.The elephants ought ______ hours ago by the keepers.

a. to be fed   b. to feed    c. to being fed    d. to have been fed

23.I wonder why they’re late.” “They ______ the train.”

a. can have missed   b. could miss   c. may have missed    d. might miss

24.Tom graduated from college at a very young age.”

He ______ have been an outstanding student.”

a.       must   b. could   c. should   d. might

25.You ______ the examination again since you had already passed it.

a. needn’t have taken  b. didn’t need to take   c. needn’t take   d. mustn’t take

26.He is really incompetent! The letter ______ yesterday.

a.       should be finished typing    b. must be finished typing

b.      must have finished typing    c. should have been finished typing

27.The boy told his father that he would rather ______ an astronaut.

a. become    b. to become    c. becoming    d. became

28.When we reached the station, the train had still not arrived; so we ______.

a.       needed not to hurry         b. needn’t have hurried   

b.      need not to have hurried     d. didn’t need to hurry

29.Since your roommate is visiting her family this weekend,_____ you like to have dinner with us tonight?

a. will   b. won’t   c. wouldn’t    d. do

30.He was afraid what he had done ______ a disastrous effect on his career.

a. might have    b. could be    c. have been   d. shall be

31.He ______ hardly say anything more, since you know about it.

a. don’t need to  b. needn’t    c. needs    d. need

32.You ______ the look on his face when he won the prize.

a. would have seen   b. should have seen   c. must see    d. can be seeing

33.Some people think the stock market will crash, but ______.

a.       I wonder if it happens          b. I doubt if it will happen

c.   I am afraid it wouldn’t happen   d. I doubt if it does happen

34.Whatever has happened to George?”   “I don’t know. He ______ lost.”

a. can have got   b. may have got   c. might get   d. could get

35.He has no idea what the book is about. He ______read the book.

a. couldn’t   b. couldn’t have  c. mightn’t have    d. shouldn’t have

36.New studies show that two of Saturn’s rings ______ longer than the 4.5 billion years since the birth of the Solar System.

a. could have lasted  b. should have lasted   c. would have lasted   d. must be lasting

37.Take the telescope with you in case you ______ it in your expedition.

a. will need   b. would need    c. should need    d. could need

38.Need he come at once? Yes, he ______.

a. must    b. must not    c. need    d. may

39.Please answer the phone. It ______ be by your father. If it is, would you tell that I want to see him?

a. will    b. should    c. would    d. could

40.We’ll never give in whatever they ______ say or do.

a. may     b. will    c. shall    d. should

41.With all this work on hand, he ______ to the cinema last night.

a. mustn’t go    b. wouldn’t go    c. oughtn’t go    d. shouldn’t have gone

42.Everyone ______ the cake because there wasn’t even a small piece left.

a. must like   b. must have liked    c. must have been liking    d. had liked

43.I wish to recollect where I met her, ______?

a.       would I    b. may I    c. may not I    d. can I

44.I ______ think he will ______ dare the risk.

a. not/ ..   b. do/not    c. ../not    d. don’t/..

45.If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time, it ______ be active.

a. may not   b. must    c. might    d. is not

46.You ______ your seats today if you want to go to the game.

a.       had better to reserve   b. had better reserve 

   c.  had to better reserve   d. had to reserve better

47.I ______ the operation unless it is absolutely necessary.

a.       would rather not have   b. would not rather had

b.      rather would not have  d. rather not would have

48.Many scientists ______ their own eyes and ears than the theories of the ancients.

a.       would rather to believe    b. would rather believe

c.   rather would believe      d. will rather believe

49.To travel from England to Scotland you ______ a passport.

a. haven’t got   b. mustn’t have    c. needn’t    d. don’t need

50.One of the statements ______ to be untrue.

a. is turned out    b. has turned out    c. have been turned out  d. have turned out

51.I don’t know whether it will rain or not, but if it ______ rain, I shall stay at home.

a. will   b. did    c. does    d. shall

52.You’d like some tea,______?”

a. wouldn’t you  b. shouldn’t you   c. hadn’t you    d. didn’t you

53.May we take the books out?”

a. No, you may not  b. No, you can not   c. No, you can’t   d. Please don’t

54.I would have come sooner, but I ______ that you were waiting.”

a. didn’t know   b. hasn’t known   c. hadn’t know    d. haven’t known

55.If you don’t want to, you ______ to get there with us.

a. mustn’t   b. can’t   c. don’t have   d. have not

56.I would go to visit them but I ______ think they are anxious to see me.

a. haven’t    b. don’t   c. doesn’t    d. didn’t

57.Whatever you can do,______.

a.       I can do so as well   b. I can do this as well

b.      I can do it as well    d. I can do as well

58._____- I realized the consequences I would never have contemplated getting involved.

a. Had   b. Have    c. Having    d. Has

59.Perhaps she is working for John.”  “Yes, she ______ for him.”

a.       need have been working    b. may be working 

b.      ought have been working   d. ought be working

60.I know she was in because I heard her radio, but she didn’t open the door.” “She ______ the bell.”

a.       may not be hearing   b. may not have heard  

b.      must not have heard  d. must not be hearing

61. “He was smoking.” “Then he ______ .”

a.       ought to have been not smoking    b. ought to have not been smoking

b.      ought not to have been smoking    d. ought to not have been smoking

62.You ______ out yesterday without a coat. No wonder you caught cold.

a. oughtn’t have gone  b. shouldn’t have gone  c. mustn’t have gone   d. can’t have gone

63.Paul was riding a bicycle along the motorway when he was hit by the trailer of a lorry.”

He _____ a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed.”

a.       shouldn’t have been riding    b. couldn’t have been riding

c.   oughtn’t have been riding    d. can’t have been riding

64.I am listening. But you ______.

a. need be listening   b. should be listening  c. need have been listening  d. ought be listening

65.He ______ with us last night.

a.       would have liked to go   b. should like to be going

b.      should be liked to go    d. would like to go

66.I ______ his face when he opened the letter.

a.       should like you to see        b. would have liked you to be seen

b.      should like you to have seen   d. would like you to see

67.You say you ______ do it, but I say you ______ do it.

a. ought not/could  b. will not/shall   c. could not/need   d. shall not/ought

68.We ______ put the meeting off for a week.

a. can as well   b. will as well    c. shall as well    d. may as well

69.______ wind your watch every day?

a. Do you need   b. Must you have to   c. Have you to    d. Do you have to

70.______ give him a chance to try?

a. Oughtn’t to we  b. Oughtn’t we to  c. Ought to we not   d. Oughtn’t we

71.Did you blame him for his mistakes?” “______”

a. I’d rather not do  b. I’d not rather do   c. I’d better not do   d. I’d rather not doing

72.You had better ______ your hair cut.

a. had   b. have   c. to get    d. to have

73.My sister didn’t go to the party last night because she ______ the baby for her friend until 9:30.

a.       must have looked after   b. would have to look after

b.      had to look after        d. should have looked after

74.Mary is very late, she ______.

a.       may miss her train  b. may have missed her train 

c.  must miss her train  d. could miss her train

75.No matter what you may say, he ______ to his own views.

a.       would always stick  b. will always stick   c. should always stick  d. must always stick to

76.It’s wonderful that you ______ have achieved so much in these years.

a. may   b. can   c. should   d. would

77.The students asked whether he ______ take the books out of the reading-room.

a. could   b. might   c. should   d. would

78.He ______ still be thinking about the question you raised.

a. may  b. might  c. must    d. should

79.I’d be glad if you______ give me an account of the fact.

a.       shall  b. should    c. would   d. may

80.He ______ accomplish the task in time.

a. did   b. has   c. is   d. do

   

返回主目录

返回动名词目录

动名词

动名词是非限定动词的一种形式,由动词原形+ing构成。它既有动词的特征,又有名词的特征,故称。动名词也有时态和语态的变化,如表所示(以及物动词write为例),不及物动词没有语态的变化。

时态/语态

主动

被动

一般式

writing

being written

完成式

having written

having been written

 

返回动名词目录

6.1 动名词作主语、宾语和表语

1)作主语。例如:

   Fighting broke out between the South and the North. 南方与北方开战了。

 2)作宾语 

  a. 有些动词可以用动名词作宾语。例如:

admit 承认

appreciate 感激

avoid 避免

complete完成

consider认为

delay 耽误

deny 否认

detest 讨厌

endure 忍受

enjoy 喜欢

escape 逃脱

fancy 想象

finish 完成

imagine 想象

mind 介意

miss 想念

postpone推迟

practice 训练

recall 回忆

resent 讨厌

resume 继续

resist 抵抗

risk 冒险

suggest 建议

face 面对

include 包括

stand 忍受

understand 理解

forgive 宽恕

keep 继续

例如:Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? 你把收音机音量调小一点,好吗

       The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught. 这松鼠幸运得很,刚逃避了被逮住的厄运。    

  b. 有些结构后面可以用动名词作宾语或其他成分。例如:

admit to

prefer…to

be used to

lead to

devote oneself to

object to

stick to

no good

no use

be fond of

look forward to

be proud of

be busy

can't help

be tired of

be capable of

be afraid of

think of

burst out

keep on

insist on

count on

set about

 

put off

be good at

take up

give up

be successful in

 

3)作表语,对主语说明、解释。例如:

Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children. 她的工作是洗刷、清扫和照顾孩子。

比较:She is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children.

  4)作定语,一般表示所修饰名词事物的用途。例如:

a writing desk=a desk for writing 写字台

a swimming pool=a pool swimming 游泳池

有些动名词作定语,与所修饰的名词关系比较复杂。例如:

boiling point=a temperature point at which something begins to boil 沸点

a walking tractor=a tractor which a driver can operate while he or she is walking behind it 手扶拖拉机

 

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6.2 worth 的用法

worth, worthy, worthwhile都是形容词,意为"值得"。

1. worth: be worth + n.  当名词为金钱时,表示"…… 值得……"

常见的有It ’s worth while to do./ It ’s worth(someone’s)while doing

           be worth doing sth. "……某事值得被做"

  The question is not worth discussing again and again. 这问题不值得反复讨论。

2. worthy:be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示"……值得……"

           be worthy to be done "某事值得被做"

  The question is not worthy to be discussed again and again.

3. worthwhile: be worthwhile to do sth  "值得做某事"

  It is worthwhile to ask him to join the club.值得邀请他加入俱乐部。

典型例题

It is not ____ to discuss the question again and again.

A. worth  B. worthy C. worthwhile D. worth while

答案C. 由worth的用法可知,此句只适合词组be worthwhile to do sth.。选C。

 

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返回动名词、不定式、分词练习答案

6.3 动名词不定式、分词练习

1.      I was ______ work last week, but I changed my mind.

    a. to start   b. to have started    c. to be starting    d. to have been starting

2.      I intended ______ the matter with you, but I had some guests hen.

a. discuss   b. discussing    c. having discussed    d. to have discussed

3.      Don’t let me catch you ______.

a. do that again   b. to do that again   c. doing that again   d. done that again

4.      There are many kinds of metals ______.

a.       each has its special properties     b. one has its special properties

b.      each having its special properties  d. having its special properties

5.      It’s pay-day, and they’re waiting ______.

a. for paying     b. to be paid     c. to be paying     d. to have paid

6.      _______ trouble, I’m going to forget the whole affair.

a. Then rather cause    b. Rather causing   

c. Rather than cause    d. Rather than caused

7.      The brilliance of his satires was ______ make even his victims laugh.

a. so as to     b. such as to    c. so that    d. such that

8.      Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined ______ high levels of self-confidence.

a. possess    b. have possessed    c. to possess    d. possessing

9.      The worker is ______ in repairing the machine to notice my coming.

a. too busy    b. enough busy    c. busy too    d. busy enough

10.   What did you do in the garden?”

I watched my father ______ his motorbike.”

a. to repair    b. repaired    c. repairing    d. repairs

11.   We must have an engineer ______ the workers build the house.

a. to see    b. see    c. seeing    d. seen

12.   Induction means ______ a general conclusion from special facts.

a. to come to     b. to coming     c. coming to    d. came

13.   I’m not going to ask the teacher why he gave me that grade; I intend _______.

a. to let rest the matter       b. the matter to be let resting

c. letting the matter to rest    d. to let the matter rest

14.   I have tried _______ worrying about it.

a. to stop consciously        b. to consciously stop

c. to conscious stopping      d. to stopping consciously

15.   Do you want to give a talk on that subject?”

I prefer ______ .”

a. not want      b. not wanting       c. to not giving       d. not to

16.   I _______ the truth of your remarks, although they go against my interests.

a. cannot but admit       b. cannot help but to admit

c. cannot but admitting    d. cannot help but admitting

17.   Since she is angry, we ______.

a. had better leaving her alone      b. should leave her alone

c. might as well leave her alone     d. had rather leave her alone

18.   I don’t allow ______ in my office and I don’t allow my family ______ at all.

a. to smoke…smoking    b. smoking…to smoke

c. to smoke…to smoke    d. smoking…smoking

19.   You should remember ______ from the point when you are writing a composition.

a. don’t wander      b. not to wander    c. no wandering      d. not wander

20.   Grace advised us to withdraw ______.

a. so as to get not involved      b. so as not to get involved

c. so that to get not involved     d. as not to get involved

21.   He ran all the way up to the station ______ that the train had left fifteen minutes before.

a. in order to find    b. so as to find    c. only to find     d. such as to find

22.   George went hunting for a week but still he didn’t find a room ______.

a. to live    b. to live in     c. for living    d. to be living in

23.   You should really avoid ______ at home alone as he is old and ill.

a. your father stay          b. your father to stay  

c. your father’s staying      d. your father who stays

24.   John didn’t want to risk ______ wet as he had only one suit.

a. getting    b. to get    c. being got    d. to be gotten

25.   I’m disappointed with the new officers elected in our club, but there is no point _______ about it.

a. to worry    b. in worrying    c. with us worrying    d. if we worry

26.   It won’t be any use ______ to borrow any more money.

a. you to try    b. of your trying    c. trying you    d. your trying

27.   The law requires all cars _______ for safety and efficiency.

a. being tested regularly      b. to be regularly tested

c. be regularly tested         d. regularly tested

28.   I remember ______ to the zoo by my father when I was little.

a. being taken    b. taking    c. have been taken    d. to have taken

29.   I completely forgot ______ the front door last night and feel fortunate that nothing is stolen.

a. locking    b. being locked    c. to lock    d. to have locked

30.   I regret ______ you that your application has been refused.

a. informing     b. being informed    c. to be informed    d. to inform

31.   I didn’t mean ______ anything, but these apples looked so good I couldn’t resist ______ one.

a. to eat…trying    b. to eat…o trying    c. eating…to try    d. eating…to trying

32.   I know it isn’t important but I can’t help ______ about it.

a. but to think    b. thinking     c. think     d. to think

33.   The ship, ______ to a shapeless wreck, was hardly recognizable.

a. being reduced     b. reducing    c. reduced    d. having been reducing

34.   The young doctor could not sleep at night, his thoughts ______ him no peace.

a. gave    b. giving    c. being given    d. to give

35.   After a long walk on a hot day, one feels ______.

a. exhaustive    b. exhausting    c. exhaust    d. exhausted

36.   Those relatives of his are ______ . I don’t want to have any dealings with them.

a. boring people                 b. bored people   

c. people having bored             d. people having boring

37.   You must follow the directions exactly and if you become ______, you must take the time to go back again and reread them.

a. to confuse    b. confusing    c. confuse    d. confused

38.   There is something wrong with my TV set, I must have it ______.

a. checking    b. check     c. to check     d. checked

39.   He was just about to jump up when he felt something ______ near his feet.

a. to move     b. move     c. moving    d. moved

40.   ______ with the corresponding period of last year, the output of chemical fibers in the first quarter rose by 15%.

a. Comparing    b. To compare    c. Compared     d. Compare

41.   Was the rally successful?’

No, because the number of ______ was smaller than we had expected.”

a. people who attend    b. attended people  

c. people attending     d. attendance of people

42.   Uncle Dick has already arrive. Do you expect ______ to see him?

a.      Going     b. go     c. to go    d. that you go

43.   From the electric refrigerator Dick takes a carton of cream, another of fresh milk and a can of ______ orange juice.

a.      frozen     b. froze    c. freezing    d. freezed

44.   He felt bad for ______ a chance to study abroad.

a. having not given       b. not having given

c. having not been given   d. not having been given

45.   In some countries there are already a number of firms ______ computer programming.

a. specialize in    b. specialized in     c. specializing in     d. specializes in

46.   The young man who saw the car ______ into the river telephoned the police station.

a. plunge    b. plunged    c. was plunging     d. to plunge

47.   While she was shopping, she kept ______ the list to make sure she hadn’t forgotten anything.

a. checked    b. checking     c. to check    d. check

48.   You’d better ______.

a. to have your shoes mended    b. to have mended your shoes

c. have your shoes mended      d. having your shoes mended

49.   The machines are made ______ at full speed.

a. work    b. working     c. to work    d. to be worked

50.   It is certain that men will never stop ______ new energy sources to power their growing industry.

a. finding     b. to find    c. having found    d. found

51.   It is really quite extraordinary that we should have been at the same college without ______ before.

a. met    b. being met    c. having met    d. having been met

52.   Professor Smith is said ______ another important discovery in chemistry.

a. having made    b. having been made    c. to have made    d. to make

53.   Without the sun’s light ______ the earth’s surface, it would be so cold that life could not exist on the earth.

a. warms    b. warmed     c. warming     d. to warm

54.   The rocket will weigh about 200 tons when ______.

a. being completed    b. completed    completing    d. have been completed

55.   There are plans ______ a number of atomic power station in this regions.

a. to build     b. to be built    c. building    d. being built

56.   All of us are looking forward to ______ a trip to the Ming Tombs.

a. make     b. making    c. to making     d. have made

57.   I can’t understand ______ a decision until it is too late.

a. him to postpone to make       b. his postponing to make

c. him to postponing making      d. his postponing making

58.   I would like ______ that I don’t have a very high opinion of you.

a. to have you know       b. have you know

c. to have your known     d. having you know

59.   I had intended ______ him while he was living at Aberdeen.

a. visiting    b. visit    c. to have visited    d. having visited

60.   Do you consider better _______ ?

a. not doing it again         b. not do it again

c. not having done it again    d. not to do it again

61.   The famous scientist was easy  _______ along with.

a. to get    b. for getting    c. getting    d. got

62.   The students will have more discussions like this in the weeks ______.

a. coming    b. to come    c. come    d. to be coming

63.   He felt lonely at first, but after a time he got ______ alone and even got ______ it.

a. used to living…to like      b. used to live… to like

c. using to live…liking       d. to be used to living…liking

64.   Our master raised his voice so that the could make himself ______ by the pupils in the back of the hall.

a. hear    b. heard    c. hearing    d. to be heard

65.   When he awoke, he found himself ______ in the hospital and ______ by an old woman.

a. lying…being looked after      b. lying…be looking after

c. lie…be looked after           d. lie…being looked after

66.   ______ from the hill-top the lake scenery is beyond description.

a. To see    b. Seeing    c. Seen    d. Having seen

67.   ______ in the strange forest, the poor girls fell to ______.

a. Lost…crying   b. Lost…cry    c. To lost…cry    d. Having been lost…crying

68.   They’ll have you ______ if you don’t pay your taxes.

a. to be arrested    b. arrest    c. arrested    d. being arrested

69.   All flights ______ because of the storm, they decided to take the train.

a. having cancelled         b. were cancelled  

c. have been cancelled      d. having been cancelled

70.   Although it was very late when John began doing the job, he managed with his friend’s assistance, ______ before the building was locked.

a. to be finished    b. being finished    c. finishing    d. to finish

71.   Despite the earnest efforts of various private groups as well as government agencies, many of the problems have not yet been solved, and much remains to ______.

a. have been done    b. be done    c. have done    d. do

72.   ______ that bad weather was on the way, the climbers decided to put off their attempt on Eiger until the following week.

a. Having told    b. Being told    c. Telling    d. Having been told

73.   Members of the Government itself acknowledge many of their predictions _______ wildly over-optimistic.

a. to be    b. being     c. to have been    d. having been

74.   The match was cancelled because most of the members ______ a match without a standard court.

a. objected to having      b. objected to have

c. were objected to have   d. were objected to having

75.   The teacher doesn’t permit ______ in class.

a. smoke    b. smoking    c. to smoke    d. to have smoke

76.   I like watching TV  ______ to the cinema.

a. more than to go    b. more than going

c. than going        d. rather than to go

77.   The manager promised to keep me ______ of how our business was going on.

a. to be informed     b. informed     c. on informing     d. informing

78.   Mrs. Brown is supposed ______ for Italy last week.

a. to have left    b. to leave    c. to be leaving     d. to have been left

79.   Dorothy went to work quietly, ______ to work as hard as she could.

a. her mind being made up    b. with her mind made up

c. with her mind making up   d. he mind making up

80.   Husband and wife with a common duty to the country will find themselves ______ closer together.

a. been drawn    b. drawn    c. to draw    d. drawing

81.   Here we found little snow, as most of it seemed ______ blown off the mountain.

a. to have been    b. that it was    c. to be    d. that it had been

82.   ______ halfway through the exercise, the teacher changed his mind and collected all our papers.

a. When only being    b. When we were only

c. Being only         d. Having been

83.   Some passengers are reading the morning paper, others are talking with one another, ______ nervously for the train.

a. to wait    b. are waiting    c. waiting    d. being waited

84.   There’s one thing I dislike about him: he will never admit ______ a mistake.

a. having made    b. making     c. being made    d. have been made

85.   Stan spent half a year ______ material for his new book.

a. to collect     b. collect    c. collecting    d. collected

86.   It’s no use ______ me not to worry.

a. you tell    b. your telling   c. for you to have told    d. having told

87.   The chairman insists that there be a meeting _______ within the shortest possible time.

a. to hold    b. to be held    c. to have been held    d. to be holding

88.   When the famous pianist was a child, he was accustomed ______ for several hours a day.

a. to practicing    b. to practice    c. to be practicing    d. to have practiced.

89.   In China hundreds of different dialects are spoken; people of some villages ______ themselves understood by the inhabitants of the next town.

a. making trouble have    b. have making trouble

c. have trouble making    d. trouble making have

90.   It’s a wonderful place for anyone ______ in architecture, as you are.

a. interesting    b. to be interested    c. being interested    d. interested

91.   Another feature worth ______ is the role of information throughout a feedback control system..

a. noticed     b. noticing    c. being noticed    d. notice

92.   I believe ______ very largely due to mistaken views of the world.

a. this unhappiness are      b. to be this unhappiness

c. this be unhappiness       d. this unhappiness to be

93.